The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Vans Unisex Era 59 Canvas Leather TrainersThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,HEAD Revolt Team 2.0 Men's Tennis shoes Black blueeSkechers Mens Bruiser Chukka Boot Armani Jeans Men's Bright bluee Hi Top Sneakers shoes US 8 IT 41Supra Skytop III Majestic Grey Purplegenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, DSFGHE Mens Chelsea Boots Martin shoes Outdoors Warm Lining Skidproof Bootsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Crocs Women's A-Leigh Leather Mini WedgeEnzo Romeo SPK14 Men's Fashion Tuxedo Smoking Dress Loafer Slip On shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Rieker womens Ballerinas, Sandalen blue, 941857-5Palladium Women’s Us Baggy W F Hi-Top TrainersDr. Brinkmann Damen-Pantolette black 701090-1, Gr. 42English Laundry Mens Palace Fashion Sneaker I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Geox Men's Zal 8 Chukka Boot), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. PUMA Women's Suede Elemental Running shoes Grey White), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Soludos Womens Braided Pool Slide Sandaland Regatta Mens Burrell II Hiking Boots). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, DC - Heathrow Prestige - ADYS700084NKHInsun Men's Retro Genuine Leather Work Ankle Bootduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Sport Sandals Sandals Non-Slip-on Men's Sandals Summer Beach Roman shoes Fishing Breathable Slippers Outdoor Camping shoes (color Black, Size 6UK 8US)Mens Running shoes, Breathable Cross Training shoes Slip On Sneakers Lightweight Athletic Walking Footwear for MenLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Navy Suede Driver Club USA Mens Mens Genuine Leather Made in Brazil Park Ave Buckle Loafer LoaferNine West Womens Alaine Suede Winter BootAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Men's Leather shoes Dress shoesBusiness for Men Casual Classic Mens shoes Men's Hand-Stitched Leather shoesAilj Snow Boots, Ladies Outdoor Leather Plush One Boots Thick Warm Cotton shoes Boots (3 colors) (color Black, Size 36 EU 4.5 US 3.5 UK 23cm JP).

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Reflect Silver Reflect Silver 2011-12 Arsenal Nike Core Trainer Jacket (Red)Nike Vapor Untouchable Pro Black Black Metallic Silver White Men's Cleated shoes Soludos Womens Knotted Pump Wedge PumpHush Puppies Womens Sayer Malia MulesThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Duckmole Men Casual Winter Padded Ankle Chukka Lace-up Leather BootsKenneth Cole New York Womens Mara Stud Pointed Toe Slip on Sneaker Sneakerfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Donald J Pliner Womens Watson08qd Heeled SandalMen's Leather shoes, Comfort Loafers Leather Spring Summer Fall Comfort Loafers & Slip-Ons Walking shoes Black Brown YAN (color Brown, Size 44) There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeAdidas D Howard 6 Kids Basketball shoes 7 Light Onix-Vivid Red-BlackVibram FiveFingers KSO Evo Running shoes - SS19.Amblers Safety Mens FS188N Lightweight Lace up Safety Trainer Grey Size UK 12 EU 47Men Flip Flop Trend Summer Outdoor Personality Beach Sandals Men's Sandals One-Word Drag and Drop Hip-hop Youth Street Slippers (Pattern Yellow Buckle, Size 42) At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Adidas Originals Men's Superstar Basketball Sneaker, White Black White, 3.5 M USVTech Men's V1235 Boulder Safety Bootstherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (WeiPoot Women's Frosted Solid Closed Toe Boots with Thread and Non-Slipping Sole).Xujw-shoes Men's Ankle Work Boots, Fashion Casual Winter Classic British Style Fleece Inside Warm High Top BootHush Puppies Men's Lockout Oxford PL However,Enzo Romeo HYN Men's Winter Heavy Duty Leather Snow Boots Cold Weather Thermos Rubber Sole Oxfords Work shoesMila Lady (BERYL-02 D'Orsay Classic Ankle Strappy lace Elegance Platform Lady Heels blueSH9 I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Rocky Cruiser Suede Mens RKS0206

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