The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Women Fashion Ethnic Style Bohemian Rhinestone Beaded Flat Sandals Ladies Sexy Snake Pattern SandalsThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,AmoonyFashionWomens Round Closed Toe Low Heels Imitated Suede Solid Boots with Metalornament and Platform, Black, 8 B(M) USBobux Kids Womens Step Up Vale (Infant Toddler) Joy Fish BOOT11-JOYFISH-W White PVC 16 Boot Men's Sz11, BOOT-11-JOYFISH-WEarth New Origins Women's Laughlin Slip Ons Almond Softgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Winter Outdoor Indoor House Slippers Men Women Cozy Knitted Memory Foam Plush Lining Slip on Home shoesand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Calaier Womens Casomeone Closed-Toe 6.5CM Block Heel Slip-on Sandals shoesBoots Women's Side Zipper Autumn Winter Round Head Front TieWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Coco Womens Ladies High Heel Platform Ankle BootWomens High Wedge Heel Ankle Boot Platform Party shoes Boots Winter Fur One Snow Boots Women Grip Sole Outdoor Walking Thick Velvet Warm Short BootsTDA Women's Simple Buckle Platform Leather Evening Party Dress Stiletto SandalsWomen's Fluffy Shaggy Faux Fur Bucket Crossbody Bag Handbag Drawstring Fur Bag Shoulder Tote Bag for Women Ladies Girls I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Saborz Fashion High Heels Knee Boots Patent Leather Pointed Toe Boots), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Rocket Dog Topeka Womens Boots Tan), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Jambu Womens Miranda Ankle Bootand CYBLING Womens Fashion Lightweight Walking shoes Breathable Gym Jogging Running Tennis Sports Sneakers). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, SK Studio Embroidery Womens Classics Flats Rubber Sole Casual shoes2018 New Women's shoes Microfiber Spring Fall Comfort Flats Flat Heel Soft Fashion Slip-ONS Peas shoes Flat Loafers for Casual Workduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). CYBLING Women's Leopard Slip-on Loafer Slides Soft Velvet Backless Fur Mules shoesCYBLING Womens Platform Wedge Seneakers Fashion High Top Increased Within Side Zipper Ankle BootiesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? QPGGP-boots Martin Boots, Autumn Winter Boots, Europe, America, Warm, Anti Slip, and Pointed Tipped Women.AmoonyFashion Women's Round-Toe Closed-Toe Kitten-Heels Boots with Ruched and PlatformAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Earth Origins Women's Darcy BootMET RXL Lady,Spring,Middle Heels,Nude shoes Rough with,Word,Square Head shoes.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).black Pumps-shoes Womens Suede BrownQupid Women Metallic Leatherette Round Toe Bow Tie Ballet Flat GJ55 - Silver Adidas Women's BB9TIS Mid (Big) Sneaker, Black Shock Pink, 11 Little Kid MFranco Sarto Womens L-palma2 PumpThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Sarahbridal Women's Pointed Toe High Heel Satin Wedding Prom Evening Pumps ZXF0608-22Women's Sneakers,Simple Light Breathable Casual shoes,Comfort Damping Athletic Sneakers,Spring Summer Fall Camping Park (color A, Size 40)factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Ollio Women's shoes Faux Suede Comfort Ballet FlatA-LING Women's Slouch Mid Calf Boots Distressed Ankle Buckled Pull up Knee Western Cowboy Riding Boots There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeKeds Womens Champion Heart Fashion SneakerForever Bellevue-5 Women's T Strap Fashion Wedge Sandals.Women Slingback Pumps,Ladies Pointed Cross Straps Sandals,Party Ankle Strap High Heel shoesMarco Tozzi Womens Premio Real Leather Slide 27211 At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Merrell Womens Siren Hex Q2 E-Mesh Gore-Tex Hiking shoesConverse Men's Chuck Taylor All Star Core Ox Charcoal Sneaker Men's 7.5 (12 US Men 14 US Women, Navy)therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Mageed Solid Black Genuine Leather Low Heels Sandals Women Comfortable Casual shoes).Lalige Summer Tropical Fruit Pineapple Waterlemen Womens Stylish Canvas Slip-ons Walking shoesYUBIN Slipper Female Wear Outside Clip Toe Net Red Sand Drag Fashion Wild Flat Cool Slippers Women (Size 35) However,Cambridge Select Women's Open Toe Crisscross Buckled Ankle Strap Low Stacked Wedge SandalAmoonyFashion Women's Kitten-Heels Soft Material Assorted color Elastic Open-Toe Sandals I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Women Winter Boots High Heels shoes Woman Keep Warm Over The Knee Boots Woman Platform Snow Boots shoes

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