The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. PUMA Mens Cell Kilter Nubuck Fm Leather Low Top Lace Up Fashion SneakersThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,ZooShoo Pixie Kitten Heel, Light gold, 6 B(M) USEasy Street Womens Edith Flat Columbia Men's CORNIGLIA II Slide SandalMUMUWU Men's Driving Penny Loafers Hollow Upper Boat Moccasins with Metal Decor & Behind Elastic (color Black, Size 9.5 D(M) US)generating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Ben Sherman Mens Prill Heel Slip Sneakerand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Betsey Johnson Womens Reina Slide SandalAdidas Adizero 5Star 7.0 Cleat Junior's FootballWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Guilty shoes Womens Classic - Closed Pointy Toe Low Kitten Heel - Dress Slip On PumpMuck Boot Womens Apres Tall (15 ) Work BootZ.L.F shoes Men's Business Oxford Formal Magic Stick Patent Leather Crocodile-Shaped Tips Casual shoes Leather shoesBCBG Generation Women's Marci Sling Back Pump I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Franco Sarto Womens Goddess Flat Sandal), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Shellys London Womens Cantara Mule), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Aerosoles Womens Manicure Flat Sandaland Loafers Genuine Leather Moccasins Black White Plus Size 49 48 47 Men Driving shoes Handmade Flats 12 11.5 11). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, COSDN Womens Mens Fashion Skid-Resistant Flyknit Basketball shoes Youth Breathable SneakersCOSDN Men's Stylish High-Top Performance Non-Slip Basketball shoes Sports Running Tennis Walking Sneakers(US 6.5~12during experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Nike Men's Tiempo Genio II Leather TF Turf Soccer Cleat (Light Crimson)HAPPYSHOP(TM Men's Suede Leather Moccasin Loafers Driving shoes Comfort Slip-on Penny Loafers Korean Style BlackLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Super frist Men's Lightweight Comfortable Hiking Boots Waterproof Non-Slip Winter Snow BootsMen's Casual Flat Loafers,Comfortable Peas shoes Breathable Loafers & Slip-Ons for Casual Dress Party & Evening & Office,Khaki,43And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Naturalizer Women's Zarie Ankle BootOld Friend Women's Bella Slipper.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Adidas Womens SolarBoost Running shoesNomad Women's Puddles Iii Rain Boot Dr. Scholl's shoes Womens Peaceful Platform SandalMen Running shoes Hiking shoes Sneakers Athletic Outdoor Sports Hiking Sneakers Waterproof Walking shoes Outdoor Trekking HikingThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Alfani Mens Patrick Leather Round Toe Ankle Safety BootsCambridge Select Women's Closed Almond Toe Slip-On Platform High Heel Pumpfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Cambridge Select Women's Open Toe Faux Fur 2 Strap Slingback Flat SandalOLIVIA K Women's Open Toe Strappy Rhinestone Dress Sandal Low Heel Wedding shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeCambridge Select Women's Closed Pointed Toe Strappy Ankle Chunky Block Mid Heel PumpGUESS Men's rand Hiking shoes.Cici shoes DayLite Hiker - Women's Barefoot-Inspired Minimalist Lightweight Hiking Boot - Zero Drop Trail shoesshoes Men's Loafers & Slip-ONS Comfort Light Soles Spring Fall Leather Casual Outdoor Magic Tape Flat Heel Black At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Snowman Lee Men's Dress Classic Slip On Driving Loafers Penny Loafer Casual Loafers shoesLIUXUEPING Summer Breathable Student White shoes Wild Set Foot Lazy shoes Thin Section Canvas shoes Flat shoes (color RED, Size 44)therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (UIN Men's Take A Bike Canvas Travel Casual shoes Red).Report Womens Zerega Ankle BootSperry Mens Captain's CVO Drink Sneaker However,BOBERCK SINCE 1970 Womens D'Orsay Pumps PumpAvec Les Filles Womens BAHA Flat Sandal I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Giorgio Brutini Mens Callas Loafer

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