The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Themost Over The Knee High Boot Womens Cowboy Western Thigh High Boots Wedge Heel shoes Mid Calf Combat Booties (8.5, Grey)The Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Avanti Bute Sandal with Lace Up Design and Zipper Side ClosureImagine Vince Camuto Womens Paill2 Heeled Sandal Men's shoes Leather Fall & Winter Martin Boots Hiking shoes Work Boots Fashion Black Ankle Boots Casual Daily Walking shoesMen's Work Boots Low Top Lace Up Boot Suede Ankle Short Boots Oxfords Slip On Leather Upper Round Toe (color Yellow-Brown, Size 9 D(M) US)generating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, WeenFashion Women's Open-Toe High Heels Buckle Solid Sandalsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Men's Sandals and Slippers Summer Breathable Non-Slip Beach shoes Outdoor SlippersCorso Como Womens Sunset Flat SandalWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Santimon Men's Martin Work Boot Classical Lace Up Fashion Outdoor Indoor Ankle-high Boot Young Style Male Style CausalWLJSLLZYQ Men's Casual shoes Sport shoesDuck and Fish Neoprene Ankle Hunting Work shoesSoludos Womens Knotted Pump Wedge Pump I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Gentle Souls Women's Noreen Pointed Toe Flat), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. J.Renee Women's Maressa Dress Pump Black), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Beinfaith Men's Genuine Leather Oxfords Brogues Flats shoes Lace-upsand Men's Work Boots Leisure Classic Genuine Leather Casual Breathable Loafers Low Top Lace Up Round Toe (color Dark Coffee, Size 9 D(M) US)). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, ASICS - Gel Upcourt 3-1071A019001Adrianna Papell Women's Lafayette Gladiator Sandalduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Adidas Crazy Explosive Low Mens Basketball Sneakers shoesXHD- Classic shoes Men's Simple Ankle Boots Casual Fashion Retro Comfortable Non-Slip Outsole High Top Work shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? New Balance Womens Wl420 SneakerHimalayan 4300 S1P SRC bluee Composite Toe Cap Metal Free Safety Sports shoes SneakersAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Sam Edelman Women's Hilty FashionGLOBALWIN Women's 1727 Waterproof Snow Boots 8.5M.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).NXT NEW YORK Mens Slip On Buckle Loafer Moc Toe Oxford shoes Comfortable Classic Formal Business shoesGeox Women’s D Nhenbus B Slip on Trainers Katy Perry Womens The HarperBlackstone Men's Mid-Top Sport Fashion SneakerThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: T&B Youth Artificial-Turf TF Soccer shoes Indoor Football Training(Little Kid Big Kid)Frye Womens Melanie Whip Slip on Sneakerfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Original S.W.A.T. Men's Metro Air 9 Inch Side-Zip Tactical BootLewhosy Mens Black High Top Winter Boots Leather Chelsea Boot Ankle Boot Waterproof Casual Fashion shoes for Men There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placePleaser Womens FLAMINGO-809LG B BLG Sandals Black blueeMen's Martin shoes Fall, Winter Comfort Tooling shoes Men High-top Leisure Sneakers Fashion Martin Boots (Size 42).Reebok Mens Royal Bb4500h2 Xe Basketball shoesMen Boots Winter High-top Toe Men Leather Martin Ankle Boot Europe and The United Waterproof Lace-up Boot At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Naot Mens Scout Round Toe Ankle Fashion BootsCALDEN K107222-3 Inches Taller - Height Increasing Elevator shoes - White Leather Fashion Sneakerstherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Lacoste Mens Explorateur Sport 317 2 Sneaker).Jiang 2018 Womens's shoes European and American White Hot Drilling Ladies High-Heeled Sandals Large Size shoes Ultra High-Heeled Party Sandals SandalsT-JULY Women's Thin High Heel Winter Over The Knee Boots Fashion Platform Pointed Toe Party Thigh Boots Black White However,DSFGHE Men Boots Martin Military Tactical Boots Chelsea Non-Slip Jungle Combat BootsKappa Unisex Adults' Trust KNT Low-Top Sneakers I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.FDF SHOES Oxfords-shoes Mens Leather Red

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