The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Aerusi Cow Plush Animal SlipperThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,InterestPrint Pattern with Hearts Women's Running shoes Casual Lightweight Athletic Sneakers US Size 6-15Cambridge Select Women's Open Toe Gladiator Cutout Caged Strappy Studded Back Zip Flat Sandal Pleaser Women's Delight-687 R M Platform PumpWomen Winter Ankle Boots Fashion Leather Square Heels Slip On Casual Round Toe Bootiesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Circus by Sam Edelman Women's Selma Gladiator Sandaland molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Coolway Nelia - Brown Suede Fancy Cut-Out Sandal BootieMAVIRS Suede Mules for Women, Women Pom Embellished Slipper shoes, Pointed Toe Backless Slip on Loafers Black Size 14We integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,LifeStride Womens Quell Pointed Toe FlatHigh Heels Hollow Pumps Explosion Cow Leather Elegant shoes Sexy Pointed Toe Thin Heels PumpsWhite Island Women Casual shoes Beige Flats PU Leather Women shoes Slip On Bow Loafers Women Flats Fashion Comfortable Pointed shoes K-169,Black,6T-JULY Women Winter Wedge Comfortable High Top Sneakers Platform Trainers Floral Print Casual shoes I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Pumps Women shoes Hollow Out Summer shoes Fashion Rivet Party shoes Pointed high Heels shoes Woman,Black,11), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. 2018 New Plus Big Size 34-43 Black White Sexy Party Wedding 11CM High Heel Platform Lady Women Sandals), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Rieker womens Pantoletten, Sandalen black, 910489-1and Yiteli Women's Latin Black Satin&Mesh Ballroom Dance shoes Open-Toe Sandals US5.5-9). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, T-JULY Rain Boots for Women Snow Boots Warm Plush Ankle Boots Winter shoes Girls Cotton Boots Ladies shoesT-JULY Women's Stilettos Heeled Denim Sandals Pumps Sexy Open Toe Ankle Strap Buckle Dress Party shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Eldof Women's High Heel Pumps Almond Toe Pumps Mary Jane 10CM Pumps Chunky Block Heel Comfortable PumpsWomen's Leather Loafers Horsebit Slip On Flats shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Laura Biagiotti Women's Sandals, 667_Calf_SandInterestPrint Women's Lace Up Boots Red Sparkly Canvas Martin Boots Combat Ankle Booties shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?IWlxz Women's shoes PU(Polyurethane) Summer Comfort Sandals Chunky Heel Open Toe Sparkling Glitter Black Fuchsia AlmondButeri Flowers Summer Slippers Oil Painting Quick-Drying Non-Slip Slippers for Womens.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).RedBrowm Winter Women's Leisure Leather Vintage Lace-UP shoes Round Toe Thick Heel Boot WhiteReef Womens Iris Le Sneaker InterestPrint Unique Martin Boots Lace Up Canvas Combat for Women GirlFuzzy Hallie Women Wide Width Open Shank Pointed Toe Buckle Ankle Strap Flats (Size & Measurement)The costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: END GAME Summer Women Sandals Open Toe Women's Sandles Thick Heel Women shoes Gladiator Summer shoesCYBLING Womens Patent Leather Slip on Flat Oxfords shoes Fringe Comfort Low Heel Penny Loafersfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Carlos by Carlos Santana Womens Ashbury Fashion BootWomen's Sneakers-Tibetan Spaniel Pattern Print Sneakers for Women Running shoes White There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeJIESENGTOO Women Flats Casual Genuine Leather Versatile Flat Single shoes Mori Girl Literary Retro JapaneseAIWEIYi Womens Peep Toe Cut Outs Platform High Heels Ankle Boots Summer Boots bluee.Zarbrina Womens Chunky Heel Platform Ankle Boots Sexy Pointed Toe Rubber Sole Slip On Party Dress Winter shoesCYBLING Women's Pointed Toe Zip Up Stiletto High Heels Plaid Dress Ankle Booties At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Btrada Women Sexy Heeled Sandals Fish Mouth Ankle Strap Summer Outdoor Stiletto Dress shoes Party PumpsWhite Mountain Reach Women US 8.5 Bronze Wedge Sandaltherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Naturalizer Womens Dallas Ankle Bootie).Women's Pointy Toe Ankle Boots Sexy High Heels Daily Wear Booties Slip On Stilettoes Martin BootsDay Of The Dead Colourfor Skulls 80s Running shoes Nmd Gym shoes However,Yiteli Women's Closed Toe Ballroom Dance shoes US5-11 BlackKtyyuwwww Women colorful Net Tropical Flamingo Bird Unique Casual Running shoes I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.WESER Happy Day Flower Rainbow Unicorn shoes Sport Ladies Running shoes NMD

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