The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. MCRAE Men's Industrial 6 BootsThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Womens Leather Briefcase A4 Size Files Folders Office Shoulder Bag - A62 BlackWomen Winter Over-The-Knee Boots Cut-Outs Long Boots with Round Toe High Heels Plush Fashion Formal shoes Elaine Turner Elan Suede Open Toe Ankle Bootie BlackASICS GelQuantum 180 3 shoes Women's Runninggenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Brooks Womens Grey Whispering bluee Vanguard Trainersand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. UNbox Mens Leather Classic Pointed Oxford Lace-Up Formal Dress shoesGeox Women's Marykarmen Block HeelWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

Wolky Comfort Mary Janes Noble

I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Hoxekle Woman Mid Calf Boots Lace Up Faux Fur Flat Platform Antislip Winter Warm Female Leisure Walking Casual shoesMedzRE Men's Retro Lace up Low shoes Daily Sneakers in LeatherNike Womens Lunar Sculpt Lunarlon Fashion TrainersNine Seven Suede Leather Women's Round Toe Low Chunky Heel Cool Handmade Casual Mid Calf Boot I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Deer Stags Men's Mitch Memory Foam Casual Comfort Boat shoes Oxford), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Nine West Women's Facinate Ballet Flat), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Kelsi Dagger Brooklyn Womens Colby Over The Knee Bootand NIC+ZOE Womens Brooke Low Top Slip On Fashion Sneakers). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Pour La Victoire Womens Amela Heeled SandalDesigual Women’s Modern Confort Lazos Ginko Low-Top Sneakersduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Shellys London Womens Komo Ankle BootieESSEX GLAM Womens Studded Chelsea Boots Elastic Gusset Pull On Flat Ankle BootiesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? CALTO Men's Invisible Height Increasing Elevator shoes - Brown Premium Leather Slip-on Formal Loafers - Y10658-3 Inches TallerWalking Cradles Womens Geena Fisherman SandalAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Gfp Men's Leather shoes Summer Business Leather shoes Summer Sandals Lace up shoes Non-Slip Formal Business Casual shoes Cool shoesKenneth Cole New York Womens Kam 11 Fashion Sneaker with Star Patches Fashion Sneaker.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Enzo Romeo ICBG Women's Winter Cold Weather Snow Boots shoes Lace Up Zipper Mid Calf Boots Fleece LiningHummel Unisex Adults' Legend Np Low-Top Sneakers T-JULY Stylish Mid Calf Boots for Women Soft Knitting Round Toe Winter Snow Boots Comfortable Med Heels shoes Stretch BootsGentle Souls Women's Brynn Flat SandalsThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Steve Madden Mens Ridge SneakerVans SK8-Hi Reissue Checker Unisex shoes Men Women Black Whitefactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Mustang Side Zip and Glitter Stripe Womens TrainersGiani Bernini Womens Oleesia Suede Ankle Booties Black 6.5 Medium (B,M) There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeDKNY Womens Catrina 2 Leather Slide Wedge SandalsKenneth Cole New York Womens Kiera High Top Double Zip Fashion Sneaker- Nubuck Fashion Sneaker.Women's lace-up platform chunky stacked heel ankle bootie womens buckle strap block sandals winter boots for waterproof snow non slip soles short work slip on rain thermal warm knee high fur lined 7.5Ryse Women's Temperament Classic Sequins Twinkle Leather shoes Heighten Heels Sneakers At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, 2018 Winter Boots Women shoes Australia shoes Woman Knee Thigh high Women BootsFall Winter Men's shoes Microfiber Black Outdoor Combat Boots High-Top Athletic Casual Fitness shoes Trekking Camping shoes,Black,44therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Vince Camuto Women's Citriana Animal Print M).APXPF Women's Glitter Stone Wedding Platforms High Heels Bridal shoes Prom Party PumpsDiamant Damen Tanzschuhe 011-011-070, Women’s Ballroom Dance shoes However,ASICS Men's Gel Cumulus 17 Running shoesEastland Womens Gia Navy Width Flat I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Prince Men's 8P984149-T22 Tennis shoes

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