The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Women's Soft Spots, Pamela mid heel Sandals NUTMEG 11 WThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Zamberlan 313 VIOZ Lite Gore-Tex Chestnut Womens BootsHogan Women's MCGLCAK000005058E White Leather Hi Top Sneakers Antelope Women's 872 Metallic Leather Open Side Ankle StrapJ. Renee Leonelle Women US 9.5 W Black Sandalsgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Benjamin Walk Johnathan Kayne Women's Austriaand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Nike Womens City Knife 3 Flyknit Running Knit Athletic shoesSAN ANTONIO SHOE Women's SAS, Bliss Slip on Low Heel shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Adidas Mens Campus Casual Athletic & SneakersGrinders Mens Black Engineer Style Biker Boots Turbo Western Leather Boots shoesWomen's Alegria, Verona MULTI FABRIC 3.6 MLauren by Ralph Lauren Women's Belen Driving Style Loafer I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. GEORPE Over Knee High Boots Female Bow Square Heels Side Zipper Black Butterfly-Knot), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Official Karrimor Ridge WTX Walking shoes Womens Grey Hiking Trekking Boots), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Donald J Pliner Womens Devi Suede Western Over-The-Knee Bootsand MARC ELLIS Women's MCGLCAT000005166E Black Patent Leather Sandals). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Oxmox 306 Women's Pointy Flat Black PatentRoyal RepubliQ Women's Elpique Suede shoes Trainersduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). POLLINI Women’'s Pon Fur Hi-Top TrainersConverse Chuck Taylor All Star Snake Woven Textile Ox Fuchsia Glow Black White Womens Classic shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Irregular Choice Disney Bambi Flower Glitter FlatsPikolinos Women's Salamanca W1S-8546 Cuero 42 B EU B (M)And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Naturalizer Women's Pump Whitney NavyStuart Weitzman Womens PEARLBACARI Ankle Boot.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Hogan Women's MCBI20547 Yellow Leather Lace-Up shoesNINALILOU Women's 282529MC Black Leather Pumps Liu Jo Women's MCBI37936 Black Leather SneakersBettye Muller Womens Vicente Espadrille Wedge SandalThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Geox - Avery A NappaSandgrens Madrid High Heel Swedish Wooden Clog Sandals for Women Whitefactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Earth Origins Cooper Women US 10 Black Ankle BootBCBGeneration Womens Lori Almond Toe Mules, Silver, Size 7.5 There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same place2 STAR shoes Men Low Sneakers 2SU 1852 blue WhiteFrench Sole Womens Wave Leather Closed Toe Classic Pumps.Elegant Party Boots Over The Knee Woman Handmade Round Toe Square Heel Boot Solid Office shoesBadgley Mischka Womens Larisa Wedge Sandal At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Ivanka Trump Women's Drita Dress SandalRockport Men's Union Street Wing Tip Boottherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Donald J Pliner Womens Dasan Black Tortoise Wedge Mesh Sandals, Split Toe Size 8 M).Taos Women's Cobbler Burgundy Printed Suede Oxford 6 B (M) USNIRA RUBENS Women's NICU44 gold Leather Sneakers However,Frye Women's Jackie Zip Short BootNike Women's WMNS Zoom All Out Flyknit, Black White-Medium bluee I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.LUCIANO PADOVAN Women's LPAD505F Pink Leather Sneakers

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