The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. AllhqFashion Women's Open Round Toe KittenHeels Cow Leather Sandals Double BreastedThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Hoxekle Winter Waterproof Non-Slip Plush Snow Boots Women Zipper Mid-Calf Boots Warm Cotton shoesHoxekle Women Knee High Boot Wedge Hidden Super Heel Platform Plush Fur Winter Casual Female Long Boots GO-SAMSARA heels Women Fashion High Heel Sandals Summer Basic Party Zip Sandals Women Big Size 34-42 LY1321Mitre Unisex Italia Kiwi Rugby Boot Black Size UK 8 EU 42generating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Fake goldfish Leisure Sports Running shoes Young Women Camping Navy Activeand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Premier Standard Women's Platform Ankle Strap High Heel - Open Toe Sandal Pump - Formal Party Chunky Dress HeelKontai Womens Rain and Garden Boot Wellies Half Calf Rubber Rainboots Floral Printed Waterproof for Garden Women rain FootwearWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Adidas Performance Women's Alphabounce Beyond wLadies High Heel Sandals Women's High Heels shoes Squared Heels Peep Toe Retro SandalsWedopus MW632 Womens D-Orsay Open Toe Low Heel Wedding Bridesmaid Pumps shoesOdema Womens Flat Sandals Summer Bohemian Beaded Beach Thong Dressy Sandals I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Lindsay Phillips Switchflops Women's Amanda Tan Sandal Flip Flop Interchangeable Snap Top shoes), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. VIGOSS Women's Heavy Arrow Stitch Chelsea Boot), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Cambridge Select Women's Open Toe Strappy Back Zip Stiletto High Heel Sandaland ASICS Womens Womens Volley Elite Ff Volleyball shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Women's Closed Toe Ankle Boots Side Zipper Short Booties Chunky Unique Heel Dress shoes Buckle PumpsWomen Leopard Tribal Stripes Slim Flip Flops Run Sports Recovery Thong Sandal Comfortable Footbedduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Converse PL LP Snake Embossed Leather Oxford Sneaker sz 10Clarks Women's Hope Track Fashion BootLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Butterfly Twists Chloe - Black (Man-Made) Womens shoesTouch Ups Women's Ice Glitter Silver Pumps shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Women's Ankle Boots Thick Heels Winter Fashion Dress Short shoes Zipper Sexy Female Party BootCallisto Womens Jeanet Open Toe Casual Slide Sandals.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Sandal Men Genuine Leather Beach shoes Cow Tendon SoftAlexis Leroy Women's Western Block Heel Side Zipper Fashion Ankle Boots Adrianna Papell Women's Heidi Dress PumpWomen Simple shoes Super High Heel Pump Sandal Red Platform Ladies Stiletto SandalsThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Women's Booties, Fall Winter New Thick Heel Martin Boots Ladies Low-Heel Fashion Ankle Boots (color A, Size 38)WeiPoot Women's Solid Pu Low-Heels Buckle Open-Toe Sandals, EGHLH007416factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Kinokoo Women’ Backpack Genuine Leather Leisure BagWedge Thong Flat Sandal,Boho Owl Rhinestone Flip-Flop Casual Beach shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeOppicong Sneakers Women's Water Resistant Classic Leather Short Snow Boots 5154 in Winter ComfortableBalaMasa Womens Casual Platform Solid Urethane Pumps shoes APL11157.WeiPoot Women's Open-Toe Low-Heels Pu Solid Buckle Sandals, EGHLH007895AmoonyFashion Women's Pull-On Frosted Round Closed Toe Pumps-shoes,BUTDT005737 At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Summer Open Toe Faux Leather Platform Slippers Woman Medium Heel Wedges Slides Beach Slipper Home SlipperK-Swiss Women's Gstaad S Fashion Sneakertherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (STEVEN by Steve Madden Womens Skelos Ankle Bootie).KAANAS Womens Amalfi Metallic Leather Loafer Flat Slip on shoes Loafer FlatWomen Flip Flops colorful Rhinestone Flat Sweet Open Toe Beach Slipper However,AmoonyFashion Women's Buckle Imitated Suede Open-Toe Low-Heels Solid Sandals, BUTLT007686AmoonyFashion Women's Buckle Pu Open-Toe High-Heels Solid Sandals, BUTLT007482 I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Women's shoes Thigh High Boots Woman Side Zipper Winter Boots Simple Over The Knee Round Toe Boots

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