The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Manitu Home Damen-Pantolette Beige 320459-8, Gr. 36The Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Bates E01788 DuraShocks Steel Toe Black Women's Leather Boots US Navy ApprovedKaty Perry Womens The Alex Open Toe Casual Ankle Strap Sandals Clarks Womens Candra bluesh Ballet FlatsSebago Womens Litesides Slip on Boat shoesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Badgley Mischka Womens Haskell Dress Sandaland molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Easy Spirit Women's Explore MapGONGFF Fashion Wedge High Heel Large Size Suede Over The Knee Women's BootsWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Women's Sandals High Heels Large Size Sandals Super High with Fish Mouth Lace Decorative Hollow Zipper Women's SandalsBlowfish Women's, Drum Sandals Birch 6 MHoxekle Woman Over The Knee Boots Slip On with Zipper High Thin Heel Round Toe Ladies Sexy Winter Warm Party shoesWomen's Alegria, Victoriah Slide Sandals I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. El Naturalista Womens N5007t Seaweed Canvas Caldera Leaves Wedge Sandal), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. AmoonyFashion Women's Pu Zipper Closed-Toe Kitten-Heels Low-Top Boots, BUSXT123247), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Forever Young Women's Plaid Print Tall Rubber Rain Bootsand Vibram Womens Vi-b Ballet Flat). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Blondo Womens Tami Ankle BootCambridge Select Women's Two-Strap Glitter Crystal Rhinestone Espadrille Slip-On Flatform Slide Sandalduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). DANDANJIE Women's Boots Autumn England Style Retro Martin Boots Flat Casual BootsJa-vie Comfy Jelly Knit Flats, Black Lace blueeLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Ecco Women's Babett Slide MuleAdidas Women's shoes Deerupt Runner W Light bluee White size 3.5And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Themost Women Over The Knee High Boots Ostrich Feather Pointed Toe Stilleo High Heeled Thigh High BootsCherokee Womens Maryann Health Care & Food Service shoes.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).KRSCBF Summer Ladies Sandals Ladies Luxury Designer Sandals Real Cowhide shoesNRS Women's Crush Water shoes JFBZS-handbag Bag Fashion Rivet Small Square Bag Fashion Baitao Single Shoulder Slant Bag Chain Single Shoulder Bag Women's BagIndigo Rd. Womens Bellie Peep Toe Casual Espadrille Sandals, Black, Size 7.5The costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Sparrow Luxury Rhinestone High Heels New Sandals Bohemia Dress Sandal Lady Performance Dancing shoes Wedding Party PumpsPleaser Womens ADORE-1020SHG PP-OL B Bootsfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Women 9cm Stiletto Pointed Rivets Flocking Leatherette Short Booties Ankle Boots Fashion Pure color Zipper Casual Party & Evening Dress Boots Eu Size 32-48T-JULY Women's Open Toe Slippers Feathers Rhinestones Thick Heels Crystal Real Leather Ladies Slippers There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeT-JULY Women Sneakers Handmade Loafers Diamond Embroidered Flats Rope Rivet Espadrilles Stud Round Toe shoesGTVERNH Women's shoes Socks and Boots Autumn Women's Boots 100 Sets Round Head Thick Heels Short Boots 5Cm High Heels Martin's Boots Middle Heels.Nine Seven Genuine Leather Women's Pointed Toe Chunky Heel Rhinestone Handmade PumpWomen's Booties Leather Chunky Heel high Heel Round Ankle Boots Side Zipper Handmade Flowers Fashion Martin Boots Ethnic Style At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, T-JULY Woman Platform Winter Warm Snow Boots Female Large Sizes 34-43 Street Style Cool High Heels Knee High BootsWLJSLLZYQ Fashion shoes Flat Pointy Minimalist shoes shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Ellie shoes E-500-FUZZ 5 Chunky Heel Platform Boot with Faux Fur. 12 Black).T-JULY New Winter Warm Long Big Size Boots Women Fashion Over The Knee Boots Stretch Thin High Heels BootsDailyshoes Unisex Flat Memory Foam Cushioned Insole Casual Slip-On Loafers Sneakers shoes However,Nature Breeze Women Leatherette Lycra Almond Ankle Bootie BD47T-JULY Fashion Autumn Women's Over The Knee Boots Thigh High Heels Knight shoes I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Women's Wedge Platform Sandal Open Toe Med Heel Fashion Crystal Breathable Summer Casual Thick Heel shoes

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