The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Enzo Angiolini Womens Pakemer 50 50 Leather Almond Toe Knee High Fashion BootsThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Hi-Tec Men's V-Lite Walk-Lite Tenby Lace Up shoesAquatalia by Marvin K. Womens Anya Naplak Ankle Bootie O-NEX Womens Megyn Wedge SandalBlack Mickey Mouse Boots - New Military Surplusgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, PUMA Future 18.2 Netfit Mg Mens Yellow Synthetic Athletic Soccer shoesand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. VISCATA Handmade in Spain Lloret 2.75 Soft Canvas, Wedge Slingback, Ponted Toe, Espadrilles HeelAilj Snow Boots, Women's Outdoor Plus Velvet Boots, Non-Slip Warm Boots, Large Size, Thick with The Middle Boots, Cotton shoes, (Black) (color 2, Size 35 EU 4 US 3 UK 22.5cm JP)We integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,André Assous Womens Petra Wedge SandalMen's Business Dress shoes Stealth Increase Single shoes Trend Fashion AtmosphereSanita Womens Professional Cali Work shoesWomen's shoes Leather Wedge shoes Invisible Heightening shoes Flat shoes Spring New Athletic shoes Casual Walking shoes White Black,White,35 I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Qupid Women's Therapy-18 Platform Sandal), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Merrell Womens Siren Sport GTX Espresso Mineral Hiking shoes), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Salming Viper 4 Junior Yellow orange Indoor Court shoesand Women's Alegria, Paloma Maryjane shoes Wide Width blueE MULTI 4.1 M). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Sperry Top-Sider gold Cup Haven Cracked Leather SneakerPolka Dots High Heels Pointed Toe Women's Patent Leather shoes White and Blackduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Onlymaker Women's Fashion High Heel Slip On Platform Closed Toe Stiletto Pump Dress Working shoesNaturalizer Women's Rhapsody Gladiator SandalLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Nike Lady Air Vivus Leather Cross Training shoesWomen's shoes Leather shoes Autumn Casual shoes Flat Heel Single shoes FemaleAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Soludos Women's Velvet Show Pony SneakerClarks Tilden Zip - Black Leather Mens Boots.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Mageleo Lady Evening Clutches Bag Luxury Dinner Party colorful Shells Evening Embroidery BagJerome C. Rousseau Womens Shaw T-JULY Fashion Women Over-The-Knee Boots Square Toe Heels shoesLACROSSE ZXT Buckle Wedge Overshoe 14 Black (267190) Waterproof Insulated Modern Comfortable Hunting Combat Boot Best for Mud, SnowThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Womens Black Witch Costume Boots Size 8ASICS - Gelupcourt 2 0140 Womens - B755Y0140factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Women's shoes, Wild Pointed Thick Heel High Heels 2019 Spring Fall New Ladies Leather Metal Deep Mouth Fashion Single shoes,A,34UNbox Mens Business Leather Casual Buckle Cow shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeCALTO Men's Invisible Height Increasing Elevator shoes - Black Premium Leather Lace-up High-top Ankle Boots - 3.2 Inches Taller - T9201Remonte Women Flat Slipper bluee, (Royal Roya) D3802-14.Cynthia Vincent Women's Eloise Suede Ballet FlatLaredo Broad Square Toe Cowgirl Boots, Sand Pink At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Elegant Footwear Calcia Women's Scrunched Riding Boot BlackClarks Womens Sashlin Fiona Fashion Boottherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Dyeables Women's Sophie D'Orsay Pump).Bronx Womens K Town Leather Hight Top Lace Up Fashion SneakersRalph Lauren - Grey Sweatshirt with Zip for Men However,Men's Casual shoes Leather Low-top shoes Hand-Woven Single shoes Cover Foot Leather shoesAriat Women's Women's Hybrid Rancher Crossfire Western Boot I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.WoMen's Nike W Air Max 90 Anniversary Red Velvet Running shoes - 726485 600

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