The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. BOGS Men's Hudson II Leather Waterproof SandalThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Nike Unisex Kids' Air Max 1 (Gs) Hi-Top SneakersNike Men's 922680 010 Low-Top Sneakers Victoria Unisex Adults' Deportivo Raso silverforma TrainersMen's Lightweight Sports Running Sneakers Daily Casual shoesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Delta Plus BRISTS3NO46 S3 SRC Grain Leather Low shoes - Black, 46 (Pack of 10)and molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. LOVDRAM Boots Men's Snow Boots Men'S Winter Warm Cotton Large Size Martin Boots Pu Waterproof Non-Slip Thick Warm Cotton shoesLOVDRAM Boots Men's Martin Boots Men Chelsea Boots Autumn And Winter Men'S High Boots Cotton Warm Cotton shoes Pu BootsWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Dexter Men's Muscle Steel Toe Mid-Top BootJLCP Men's Casual Trainers running shoes, Fish scale Mesh Blade Athletic Sneakers Breathable Lightweight Non-slip Gym Walking Outdoor Sports shoes,Black,39Adidas Originals DN4286 Trousers ManEasy Go Shopping Men's Ankle Boots Casual Stylish And Comfortable Round Toe Faux Fleece Inside Outsole Leisure shoes(Conventional Optional). Cricket shoes (color Warm Black, Size 10 UK) I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Fuxitoggo 2018 Sandals Men Casual Thong Flip Flops shoes PU Leather Beach Slippers Non-slip Sole Sandals Black Adjustable Backless (color Black, Size 45 EU) (color Black, Size 40 EU)), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. RENMEN Men's Breathable Board shoes Classic Canvas shoes Men 38-43, black), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, LOVDRAM Men'S Leather shoes White shoes Men'S shoes Autumn Pu Leather shoes Fashion Low To Help Casual shoes Wild Thick Men'S Flat shoesand GTYMFH Men's Business Suits Daily shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Wrangler Men shoes WM171005 ICAN MarinoEasy Go Shopping Ankle Boots for Man Chunky Heel Side Zipper Decoration Microfiber Upper Pointed Toe Durable Cricket shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Yydt Men's shoes Outdoor Sports Sandals Summer Men's Slippers Men's Non-Slip Flip-Flops Casual Sandals Beach Male Men's shoes (color 9.5 UK)Stonefly 108692 Sandals Man Brown 39Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Spring Models Sports shoes Leisure Men's shoes Outdoor Training Increase Coconut shoes Breathable Tide shoes Wear Resistant Street Dance Old shoes 39-44Easy Go Shopping Fashion Sneaker for Men Casual Sports shoes Lace Up Style OX Leather Breathable Pure color Cricket shoes (color Black, Size 9 UK)And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?XUE Men's shoes knit Athletic shoes Outdoor Comfort Hiking shoes Low-Top Sneakers Lightweight Breathable Light Soles Hollow-out Flat Loafers Walking shoes (color B, Size 43)OOFOS - Unisex OOahh Sport - Post Run Recovery Slide Sandal - Black - M6 W7 UK (40 EU).

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).YAYADI Running shoes Sapatos Masculino Men Sneakers Male Athletic Sport shoes Outdoor Lightweight Walking shoes Fitness BreathableSPORTIME2 Men's Futsal shoes Yellow Yellow XUE 2018 Men's shoes,spring Fall,mesh, Breathable Low-Top Sneakers, Wild Walking shoes,Lightweight Running shoes,Casual Hiking shoes,Fashion Fitness shoes, Light Soles (color B, Size 41)ZHRUI Men Sandals Full Grain Leather Fashion Handmade shoes Outdoor Beach Slippers (color Light brown, Size 4.5=38 EU)The costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Nunn Bush Men's Rio Grande Two Strap River SandalKalra Creations Men's Traditional Indian Faux Leather Designer shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Bugatti Men's 3.41519e+11 Slip On TrainersJIALUN-shoes Men's Simple Comfortable Oxfords Flat Heel Round Toe Lace Up Business Leisure shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeShukun Men's boots Winter Tooling Men'S shoes Martin Boots Men'S Cotton Warm Cotton shoes High Boots Boots Wild Snow BootsCasual shoes Summer Men'S Sandals Beach shoes Fashion Leather Hole shoes Handmade Casual shoes Flat shoes.CJC shoes Absorbing Air Running shoes Trainers Multi Athletic Jogging Fitness Fashion Outdoor Sports (Size EU39 UK6.5)LOVDRAM Boots Men's Autumn And Winter New Men'S shoes Martin Boots Fashion Men'S Boots Thick End Elastic Belt Fashion Boots Men At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Hhgold 2018 Mens British Fashion Oxfords Sparkling Rivet Slip on Casual shoes (color Silver, Size 38 EU) (color Silver, Size 41 EU)QIDI Casual shoes Male Hip-hop Outdoor Breathable Canvas shoes (Size EU39 UK6)therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (JITIAN Mens Spring Autumn Chelsea Boots Pointed Toe Ankle Boots Classic Black Business Dress shoes Slip-on Leather Flats).Igi&Co 1127 Sneakers Man bluee 46Salomon Kids XA Pro 3D CSWP Trail Running shoes - AW15 However,ZHRUI Men Fashion PU Leather Dress shoes Pointed Toe Oxfords shoes Lace up Male shoes (color orange, Size 4.5=38 EU)ZHANG9 Men's Summer Rome Leather Beach Non-Slip Opentoe Flip Flop Outdoor Leisure Black White, 39 I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Us Brass Long Wing Brogue

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