The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Bronze GHFJDO Men Open Toe Sandals,Summer Outdoors Sports Hiking Trekking Sandals,Walking shoes Summer Beach shoesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Men shoes Genuine Leather Business Formal Dress Boots Size 38To 45Geox Men's U Snake R Fashion Sneaker Black Charcoal Skechers Equaliser Persistent Men's SneakersGreen (Green Cblack Ftwwht) adidas Men's Zx Flux Low-Top Sneakersgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Jordan Eclipse Men US 13 Black Sneakersand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Brown (Oak Brown 1a09) Stonefly Men's Space Up 1 Nubuk Low-Top Slippersbluee (Collegiate Navy White gold Metallic) adidas Unisex Adults' Gazelle Low-Top SneakersWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Adidas Performance Men's Ace 17.2 Primemesh FG Soccer shoesJoseph Abboud Men's Barton OxfordGrey (Rain Cloud Rain Cloud Etc) New Balance Men's 574v2 TrainersWine Red 2019 Men's shoes Loafer Flats Men's Black Brown OX Leather Loafer Boat Moccasins Slip On Style Sewing Round Toe Fashion Classic I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Diesel Men's D-Velows Gum-Sneaker Mid), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Durango Men's Rebel DB4442 Western Boot), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, NIKE Mens SB Delta Force Vulc Cool Grey Wolf Grey White Size 14and bluee (Azuosc Ftw Bla Ftw Bla 000) adidas Men's Grand Court Tennis shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Black Men's Steel Work Boots Waterproof Martin Bootsbluee Men's High-top Leather Hiking Boots Warm Outdoor Cotton shoes Snow Bootsduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Black Vans Men's Ward Canvas Low-Top Sneakers(Anthracite Navy C9af4) Geox Men's U Ariam D Low-Top SneakersLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Black (Black Blk) Skechers Men's's Status 2.0-Mosent MoccasinsAvio U.S.POLO ASSN. Men's Talbot3 Gymnastics shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Grey (Pepper) CAT Footwear Men's Brode S1p Safety BootJoma - Zapatillas trail Joma Sierra 3 - red, 41 EU.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Z&X Sneakers Running shoes Walking shoes Men's Hiking shoes Waterproof Outdoor Hiking shoes Unisex Mountain shoesCrime Men's Trainers Silver Silver Yellowish Brown JUJIANFU-shoes Sandals for Men Outside Water shoes Lace Up Style OX Leather Vacuous Anti-Collision ToeGreen (Vintage Khaki-white) Supra Men's's Westlake TrainersThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Multicolour Reebok Men's Cn6213 Trail Running shoesDarkbrown Driving Loafer Men Casual Slip On Style Cowhide Leather Soft Sole Business Bean shoes Small Boat Moccasins Cricket shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Laredo Men's Hawk Western BootNew Balance Men's M3040 Optimum Control Running shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeRanger Outdoor Comfort Series Classic 15 Men's Waterproof Boots, Black w Mossy Oak Breakup (67503)Mammut Hueco Low GTX shoes - Men's.Red SRY-Fashion shoes Men's Fashion Ankle Boots Everyday Personality Patchwork Patent Leather Highschool Top BootBlack JIALUN-shoes Men's Classico Business Oxford Casual Fashion New Handcrafted Retro Simplicity Outsole Formal shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Sanuk Men's Planer Webbing Flip FlopC YAXUAN shoes 2019 Basketball shoes for Men Breathable Hard-wearing Sport Basket Homme Sneakers Men Trainers Gym Athletic shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Brown GJLIANGXIE Men'S Sandals Summer Sandals Men'S Slippers Non-Slip Dual-Use Korean Version Of The Beach shoes British Personality Trend Sandals Men).Spira Aquarius Running Men's shoesCover Plus 2 color New Comfort Genuine Leather Mens Slip On Business Formal Dress Wedding Loafers shoes However,Hollow bluee Men's Casual shoes Casual Solid color Soft and Light Boat Moccasins Cricket shoesReddish Brown SRY-Fashion shoes Men's Business Loafer Genuine Leather shoes Fashion Casual Elastic Gored Panel Flat Slip On Round Toe Lined Oxford I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Skechers for Work Men's Nampa Food Service shoes,Black Polyurethane,9 W US

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