The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Nike Men's's Kd VIII NSW Lifestyle Basketball shoesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Sperry Top-Sider Men's Flex Deck CVO Mesh TrainersAdidas Men's Trainers White Bianco Adidas Men's Nemeziz 17.1 Sg Footbal shoesConverse Men's Trainers bluee generating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, BOOTS XM CRUISING - 41and molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Nike Men's's Nightgazer Lw Training shoesDANDANJIE Men's Winter Martin Boots High-top Leather Boots Lace Up Outdoor Tooling shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Mens Ladies mesh hiking shoes summer fashion wading shoes lightweight and breathablePepe Jeans Sneakers PMS30471 BTN 01 595NAVYJohnny Bulls Sprinter Mens Tall Leather Cowboy BootsFour Seasons Flat Men's Leather shoes Brown Black No Closure Ventilation Driving Daily Business I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Henley Comfort Men Dark Tan Leather 'Samuel' Boat shoes), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Adidas Pharrell Williams hu AOP Tee Mens), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Think Josef, Men’s Mulesand Nike Boys' Air Jordan Spike Forty Bg Fitness shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Desi Hangover Genuine Premium Leather Handmade Mens Casual shoes Slip-on Loafers Hola bluee shoesPeter Blade Derby Brown Leather AINAduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). HCMONSTER sports shoes men's high canvas shoes retro casual shoes autumn and winter new hip hop shoes comfortable breathable street dance shoesSkechers Men's RELMENT-SEMEGO Waterproof Hiker LO Hiking shoes CDB 15 Wide USLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Nike AIR Force 1 - AO2439-600Cult Men's Ozzy Mid 1334 Chelsea BootsAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Shukun Men's boots High-Top shoes Men'S Autumn Retro Matte Leather Boots Martin shoes Men'S Business Casual High-Top shoesT.U.K. shoes Burgundy Patent Monk Buckle Pointed Creeper.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).G’z Men's Casual Sneakers, Leather Fall Winter Comfort Lace-Up Martins Boots,Tooling Boots,Driving shoes,Walking shoesADIDAS M19838, Mens Running shoes Aimont Men's Vigorex Dibond Safety BootsRieker F1210-45, Men's Chukka BootsThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Cult Scarpa Ozzy Low neraMen's shoes Men's Boots, Fall Winter Martin Boots Men's Boots Leather Men's Booties British High-top Ankle Boots Men's Fashion Boots (color A, Size 45)factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Impronte IM162003 Sneakers Men Leather Brown 42Low Help Plus Cashmere Cotton Boots Lace Slats Leisure Sports shoes Men Single shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeAdidas Originals Los Angeles Mens Synthetic Material Trainers bluee Scorched RedLotto Work Race Safety shoes T8148 S3 SRC High Waterproof - TG.42.Mizuno Men's Wave Exceed Sl Cc Tennis shoesOnitsuka Tiger Tiger Ally shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Geox Men's Wells a Low-Top SneakersPeter Blade Derby Brown Leather AHONAtherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Onitsuka Tiger Unisex Adults Mexico 66 Dl408-9001 Low-Top Sneakers).FRYE Men's Brett High Fashion SneakerPuma Men's's Drift Cat Ultra Reflective Sneaker However,SHOES Men'S Cotton, Winter Warm Snow Boots, Medium Leather Outdoor, Plus Velvet HikingMTBALI - Espadrille Wedge Sandals, Woman- Model Pantera I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.New Balance Woman 996 Sneakers Grey

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