The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Wuyulunbi@ Women'S Wedding shoes Heels Peep Toe Open Toe Heels Wedding Party & Evening Black bluee Yellow Pink Purple Red Ivory White Silver goldThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Women 's snow boots women' s waterproof snow bootsAN Womens Logos Travel Backpacking Urethane Boots DKV02913 T-JULY Womens Ladies Mother Winther shoes Boots Fur Short Plush Warm Mid Calf Cow Genuine Leather Fashion Dress BootS.Oliver Women's 25201 Low-Top Sneakersgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, 1TO9 Womens Spikes Stilettos Pointed-Toe Assorted colors Lycra-Blend Boots MNH03751and molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. K-Swiss Womens Court Classico Fashion SneakerAdeeSu Womens Nubuck Warm Lining Solid Urethane Boots SXE04784We integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Soulsfeng Mens Casual High Top Sneaker Breathable Mesh Athletic shoesWeenFashion Women's Solid Pu Low-Heels Buckle Open-Toe Sandals, AMGLX009413AdeeSu Womens Fashion Solid Boots Urethane Boots SXE04753D.A.T.E. (DATE) Loafers-shoes Womens Silver I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Lauren Ralph Lauren Womens Margarite), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Women Pump color Transparent Ankle Straps Sandals Sexy Pointed Toe 12cm Stiletto PVC Slingbacks OL Party Dress shoes EU Size 35-40), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, AllhqFashion Women's Closed Pointed Toe Cow Leather Kitten Heels Solid Pumps with Rivet and Metal Nailand FSJ Women Straps High Heel Sandals Open Toe Ankle Buckle Sandals Size 15 Light Sea Green). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Walking Cradles Women's Salli Slip-On LoaferMerrell Women's Dassie Moc Slip-On shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Women's 6 Inch Rhinestone Heel Mule With Rhinestone On UpperWomen Flats Boots Round Toe Lace Up Mixed color Mid Calf Boots Fashion Korean shoes FootwearLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? UB-ONEMIX Lightweight Air Cushion Sport Walking shoes Outdoor Walking Trekking SneakersKUNSHOP Women's Strappy Chunky shoes High Heeled Sandals Ankle Buckle PumpsAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Taryn pink Womens Lana Sheep Nappa Slide SandalWomen's Booties, Pointed Thick Heel Pink Mid Tube Fashion Boots Ladies Fall Winter New 7.5cm High Heel Ankle Boots (color B, Size 34).

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).AdeeSu Womens Bucket-Style Light-Weight Urethane Boots SXE04044Women's Single Shoulder Handbag Fashion Single Shoulder Handbag Butterfly Zipper Bag Green Tuba Just XiaoZhouZhou Women Sexy Fashion high Heel Sandals Basic Super High Pointed Toe Casual Slip-On shoes Woman high Heel Size 35-45 LY1257Lady Sandals Fashion Women Sandals Summer Boom shoes Flat Heel Comfort Beach Summer Holiday Casual Leisure Daily Wild Patchwork color Stylish SandalsThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Kelsi Dagger Brooklyn Womens West Ankle BootHeart to Hear Summer Arrive Women Sandals Buckle peep Toe high Heels Sandals,factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.A-LING Women's Boots Low Heel Slip On Short Ankle Bootie shoesAllhqFashion Women's High-Heels Pu Solid Pull-On Round-Toe Pumps-shoes, FBUDD009861 There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeDR Georgia Comfort Ballet Flat shoes (7 (M) US) goldLadies Summer Party Sandal Women Patent Leather Thin High Heels shoes Peep Toe Sandals.Clarks Women's Leisa Grace Sandal, Navy Leath, 7 M USLeecabe Sexy Stiletto PVC Upper high Heel Pink Plating Platform Jelly shoes Sexy Lady Pole Dancing Sandals Ladies shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, 2019 Women Ballerina Flat shoes Genuine Leather Round Toe Bowknot Soft shoes Comfortable Casual Slip On shoesAdeeSu Womens Nubuck Warm Lining Solid Urethane Boots SXE04883therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (WeiPoot Women's Frosted High-Heels Open-Toe Solid Lace-up Sandals, EGHLH007763).Women Fashion Snow Boots 2018 Winter Wedge Sneakers Outdoor Warm Plush Cotton Boots,Caramel,37Ellie 253-REBECCA 2.5 Heel Women's Boot with Lace, White, 9 Size However,DOSOMI Women Wedges Sneakers Mesh Platform Trainers 11CM Heels Height Increasing Autumn Casual Breathable Wedges SneakersJOE N JOYCE Womens Sandals London SynSoft Soft-Footbed Rivet I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.L-RUN Girl's Ballet shoes Women's Dance shoes Flat Dancing Slipper Canvas Vamp Leather Sole

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