The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. DolphinGirl Women Open Toe Glitter Dress Pump Heeled Sandal Prom Wedding Party Stiletto SM00222The Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Dolphin Fashion Women's bluee Flower Hollow Flax Dress Pumps Cocktail Party shoes SM00023Show Story Green Pink Buckle Zip High-top Bone Heel Platform Ankle Boots,LF80620 Gjsonmv Unicorn Rainbow mesh Lightweight shoes for Women Cool Sports Athletic Sneakers shoesGjsonmv Birds Beach Palm tree-01 mesh Lightweight shoes for Women Dad Sports Walking Sneakers shoesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Diviana Nicki-19 Women's Elastic T-Strap Back Zip Wedge Sandalsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Gracosy Sport Sandals, Women's Athletic Sandal Outdoor Flip-Flops Non-Slip Lightweight Walking Flat shoesMark Nason Los Angeles Women's AimeeWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Pour La Victoire Women's Cailyn PumpBeige Hey Dude Women's Wendy Loafer shoesAjvani Women's Flat Low Heel Winter Fur Lined Luxury Mules Slippers Size 8 39Hush Puppies Womens Ladies Jovanna Phoebe Slip On Plain shoes I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Big Shots of Winter and Autumn, Martin Boots, Korean Cups and Pointed Metal Ladies' Short Boots), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Frosted Martin Boots, Ladies Size Boots, Student Boots), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Summer Ladies high Heel shoes, Rome Style Wine Cup, Root, Buckle, Sharp Head, high Bar, Big Size Sandals.and New Summer Fluffy Fur Women Slippers Indoor Flip Real Fox Hair Slider Flat Soft Slip On Home Woman Cute Plush). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Sunlome Sports Baseball Print Handbags Women's PU Leather Top-Handle Shoulder BagsSunlome Early Morning Sun The Green Forest Print Handbags Women's PU Leather Top-Handle Shoulder Bagsduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Sunlome Vintage Hipster Pug Dog Puppy Portrait Print Handbags Women's PU Leather Top-Handle Shoulder BagsSunlome Retro pinks Butterfly Print Women's Leather Tote Shoulder Bags HandbagsLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Sunlome Retro Peacock Flower Print Women's Leather Tote Shoulder Bags HandbagsWomen's Natural Soul, Barroll SandalsAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Opr7 Tropical Watermelon Fruit Lightweight Running shoes for Women Sneaker Lace-Up CasualAutumn Girl Student Knight high Boots Belt Buckle Boots Fashion with Boots.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Opr7 80'S Rainbow Sticker Running shoes Lightweight Women Sneaker Workout Quick DryOpr7 Leaves of Plants Pictogram Running shoes Lightweight for Women Sneaker Outdoor Fashion Heeled-Sandals Summer Plus Size Style in Europe and The Ultra-High Hollow Out Thick with Sandal Strap Roman Women shoes Woman,Serpentine,10Drew Toby Women's Flats,Multicolor Non-Slip Fashion Original Spring Office Work shoesThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Kyle Walsh Pa Women Spring Square Toe shoesWomens Ladies Scree Lace Up Technical Walking shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Opr7 White Snowflake on Light bluee Running shoes Lightweight for Women Sneaker Lace-up Shock AbsorbingStep n Style Women Pure Leather Khussa shoes Jutti Ballerina Ballet Flats Slipper There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeTretorn Women's Skerry Reslig Rubber BootBtrada Wedges Sneakers for Women Platform Vulcanize Casual Sport shoes.Hoxekle Woman's Summer Mother Wedge Platform Sandals Female Summer Comfortable Casual Slope SlippersWomens Casual shoes Summer Sweet Bowtie Cut Out Women Flat Sandal Summer Cover Heel Vintage Solid shoes Woman Sandals At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Breckelles Womens Faux Leather D'Orsay Pointed Toe Flats BrownHANBINGPO 2019 Clear Heels Ladies Sandals Women Summer shoes Women Transparent shoes High Heels Pumps Jellytherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Jellypop Women's Nastia Engineer Boot).Call It Spring Womens Brelawien Dress SandalBalaMasa Womens Animal-Print Wedges Soft Material Sandals However,GO2COSY Anime Neko Atsume Cosplay Cat Backyard Sneakers Canvas shoes Womens' SizeAmoonyFashion Womens Open Toe Low Heel Soft Material PU Solid Thong Sandals with Zippers, Purple, 7.5 B(M) US I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Just XiaoZhouZhou 28 colors Real Fur Slippers Women Fox Fluffy Sliders Comfort with Feathers Furry Summer Flats Sweet Ladies shoes Plus Size 36-45,1,6.5

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