The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Hogan Women's HXW00N00010DS8B999 Black Leather SneakersThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Pas De red Women's 'Silvia' (R918) in Navy Calf bluee MosaicModello Hynkretto - Handmade Italian Leather Mens color Brown Oxfords Dress shoes - Cowhide Patent Leather - Lace-Up Nike W's Rosherun HYP - 642233-700Adidas Women's Athletics 24 7 Trainergenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Saucony Women's Kineta Relay Runshie Running shoesand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Kenneth Cole New York Womens Ingrid Ankle BootieAS 98 Women's Reagan SandalsWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Burnetie Men's Black Suede Leather Carnaby SneakerAdidas - CF Element Race W - DB1776Saucony Womens Ride 9 Reflex-w Running shoesLoake 205 205B Leather Mens shoes - Black - 11 I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. ECCO shoes Women's Trace Siberia GTX Outdoor Boot), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Height Increasing shoes for Men. Be Taller 7 cm 2.75 inches. Model West Port), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Free People at Ease Beige Loaferand Camper Women's Motel 46804 Fashion Sneaker). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Paradox London Pink Womens Summerwomen Karan Womens Rae Slideduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Merrell Womens Accentor Hiking BootNira Rubens Woman's Mimosa White Leather Sneaker with golden StarLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Nike Women's Dual Fusion X 2 Running shoesMerrell Grassbow Sport hiking shoes Ladies Gore-Tex blackAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?ARA Women's Libby 44241 Lace-UpPARIS TEXAS Women's PX105SNAKE Beige Leather Sandals.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).SEE BY CHLOé Women's SB32082B09051731 bluee Leather SandalsDonald J Pliner Mens Rey Nike Mens Zoom Hyperrev 2016 Fragment Mesh High Top Basketball shoesRieker Womens 41762 Mariah 62The costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Robert Clergerie Women's Darton MuleTed Baker Skalett Black Pumpfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Frye Womens Heather Gladiator Wedge SandalNike Men's Metcon 3, University Red White There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeNike Women's W Air Max 90 Ultra 2.0 SI, COOL GREY LIGHT BONE-BLACKEarth Womens Zane Leather Hight Top Zipper Walking shoes.Nine West Womens Yellia Patent Dress PumpWild Diva Women's Berlin 30 Peep Toe Cage Cut Out Slingback High Heel At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, L'Amour des Pieds Women's Zarah Lace-Up OxfordsMOHAI Women's ORL01BLACK Black Leather Ankle Bootstherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (IGI&CO - 21671 Goretex - DKNGT21671black).M by Bruno Magli Womens Celia Pump (7.5 B US, bluee)ZAC Zac Posen Womens Ivette However,Miz Mooz Women's Archer Extended Calf BootLiu Jo Women's LIUJOS15067 Black Leather Sandals I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Modello Trumonico - Handmade Italian Leather Mens color Brown Oxfords Dress shoes - Cowhide Smooth Leather - Lace-Up