The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Hoxekle Winter Women Thick Soled Over-The-Knee Boots Round Toe Platform Wedge Heels Short Plush Fashion Long BootsThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Clarks shoes 26132261 Dalia pink BlackBalaMasa Womens Checkered Dance-Ballroom Casual Urethane Walking shoes APL11056 Athena Alexander Womens Alessandria Dress SandalUIN Women's Oracle Casual Microfiber Slip on shoes Redgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, New - Ladies North Alabama Lions-Ladies' Sportand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Women Flats Brand shoesTop Quality Loafer Handmade Pearl Beads White Black CasualWomen's Sandals, Single shoes Female 2019 New Early Spring Fashion Sexy High Heels Baotou Cross Strap Sandals,b,37We integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Vlado Footwear Women's Bella Knitted Mesh Low Top Fashion shoesVince Camuto Women's Kadri PumpGnarly Tees Women's Piano Spiral shoes Low TopVince Camuto Women's Renny Pink I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Clarks Kendra Sienna - Copper (Metallic) Womens Heels), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Schutz Womens Zach Fabric Open Toe Ankle Strap Classic Pumps), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Boots for Women, Autumn and Winter Thick with Mid-Rise Platform Boots, Warm Padded Bowknot and Bare Bootsand Women's Sandals - Super high Heel with Sexy Suede Women's shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Skechers Sport Women's Savvy Dressed Up Wedge PumpWeenFashion Women's Low-Heels Round Closed Toe Lace-Up Pumps-shoes, AMGDX006757during experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). MEIZOKEN Womens Peep Toe Wedges Sandals Fashion Lace Printed Platform Sneakers Casual Buckle Non-Slip SlippersShow Story Punk Black White Snake Skin Print Two Tone Buckle Bone Platform Ankle Boots,LF80668Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? CASSOCK Women's High Heel Sandals Four Buckles Strap Party Office shoes Peep-Toe Big Size Fashion shoesPetkanvas Cute Cavalier King Charles Spaniel Print Slip ONS shoes for Women WhiteAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?QIDI Sandals Summer High Heel Pointed Female Rubber Black Apricot shoes (color Black, Size EU39 UK6)Guilty Heart - Womens Triple Buckle Faux Leather Riding Knee High Boot.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Jim Hugh Fashion Women Low Heel Casual Boots Mid Calf Jeans Boots Leather Pointed Toe Cowboy BootsWomen's High Heel Sandals New Summer Transparent Rough High Heels Buckle Novelty shoes Wedding Party Evening,B,39 FSJ Women Faux Suede T Strap Sandals Closed Toe Low Heel Pumps Stiletto Buckle shoes Size 4-15 USC Label Women's Blasco-2 Motorcycle BootThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: LIVEINU Women's Leather Snow Boots Winter Faux Fur Lined Anti-Slip Ankle BootiesCambridge Select Women's Thong Toe Glitter Crystal Rhinestone Slingback Flatform Sandalfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Vince Camuto Women's Farella shoesT-JULY Women's Open Toe Sandals Chunky High Heel Fashion Elegant Cowhide Leather Casual shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeJackets Women's Sneakers, 2018 Autumn and Winter Increase Women's shoes Sports shoes Platform shoes with LadiesClarks Women's Aria Pump Flat.Caparros A-List Women Open Toe Leather SandalsAdeeSu Womens Dress Spikes Stilettos Fringed Leather Boots SXE04943 At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Shi xiang shop Sandals Sequins High-Heeled Sandals Summer Stiletto Pointed Silver Hollow Wedding shoesCarlos by Carlos Santana Women's Miratherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Women's Sandals - Pointed Shallow Mouth high Heel Back Buckle Snake Sexy shoes).Yosi Samra Women's Reese Slides, Black, 6 B(M) USWomen Summer Open Toe High Heels Slides Vintage Floral Bohemia Buckles Casual Sandals Slippers However,Musse & Cloud Sisley - Black Suede Ruffled Flower Footbed Slide SandalMarc Fisher Womens Adalyne Suede Perforated Wedge Sandals I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.COSDN Womens Mens High Upper Air Cushion Fashion Basketball shoes Youth Noctilucent Sneakers

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