The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Lucksender Womens Round Closed Toe Low Heels PU Mesh Legging Hollow Out Solid BootsThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Alfani Maloree Womens Size 9.5 Black Suede Slingback Sandals shoesCAITLIN-PAN Women's Square Platform High Heels Peep Toe Heeled Sandlas Square-Toe Block Heel Pump shoes Lucksender Womens Lace Up Buckle Chunky High Heel Platform Short BootsReport Women's Brando Winter Bootgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, KUUI Womens Fashion PU Leather Sneakers Low Top Lace up shoesand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Women Spring golden Glitter Wedge Sneakers Female Casual Wedge Platform shoes Fashion Chunky Sneakers gold 5 M USWomen's Classic High Heel Sandals, Transparent Thick High Heel Fish Mouth Female Sandals Ankle Strap Open Toe Comfortable Party,Beige,35We integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,LZWSMGS Women's Suede Latin Jazz Swing shoes Flocking Sandals Heel Indoor Openwork Heel Black 34-40cm Ladies Sandals (color Black, Size 37)LZWSMGS Artificial PU Women's Spring and Summer Suede Hollow Sandals Pointed Bright Rhinestone High Heels Black Apricot 34-38cm Ladies Sandals (color Apricot, Size 35)Sunmiles Mesh Summer Breathable Casual Men's Water shoes Upsteam Outdoor Pool Beach Swim Drawstring Creek DivingShiney Women's Martin Boots Front Strap Chunky Heel Buckle Female Boots Fall Winter I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. JQSM Fashion Luxury Handbags Women Bags Women Leather Handbag Shoulder Bag for Women 2019 Female Ladies Hand Bags), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Monicas-house Women High Heels Sandals Summer Square Heels Crystal Heeled Platform shoes Ladies Sexy Party Wedding Lace Up shoes), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Mao YiE Women Pumps shoes High Heels Sexy New Thin Heels Pointed Toe Spring Autumn Buckleand Ches Ladies Gladiator Sandals Super Thin Heel Cover Heel shoes Elegant Flower Women Sandals High Heel Buckle Strap Dress shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, GIY Women's Bowtie Low Wedge Flip Flops Sandals Bohemian Platform Elastic Summer Beach Thong BlackJellypop Womens Aerin Ankle Bootieduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Pelle Moda Women's INES Dress SandalJia Jia Women's Bridal 1296 Peep Toe Hight Heel Satin Wedding shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Baretraps Women's Sheree Snow BootPerilla fire Dancing Female shoes Crystal Transparent shoes Women Summer High Heel 14.5CM Peep Toe Nightclub Wedding shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?MKJYDM Women's Sandals Shallow Mouth Summer Open Toe Hollow High Heels Casual Slippers Outdoor Beach Casual shoes Court shoes 35-40 Yards High-Heeled Sandals (color color, Size 37 EU)Men's Fashion Sneaker Men's and Women's Sandals Casual Lightweight Quick Drying Mesh Aqua Slip-on Water shoes Perfect Match for Waterproof Breathable.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Black Cocktail Dress High Heels, Lady's Fish Mouth Shiny Word with Sandals Open Toe Fashion Sandals Rhinestone Dress Party shoesASILETO Ankle Strap Pointed Toe Summer Sandals Women Apricot Genuine Leather Stiletto High Heels Cross Straps Hollow Ankle Boots Female NingYu Loafers Girl Ballet Flats Women Flat shoes Soft Comfortable shoesSRF6 Women's shoes Shallow Mouth Pointed Buckle Polka-dot Sandals for momThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: JQfashion Women's High-Heeled shoes Fishmouth High Waterproof Night Club Sexy Single shoes 16CmLelehwhge Women's Sexy Peep Toe Ankle Strap Bridal shoes Chunky Extreme High Heel Platform Patent Leather Sandals Red 7.5 M USfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.FidgetFidget New shoes Womens Ankle Boots Pointed Toe High Heels Zipper shoesBlack 8Genuine Leather Women Flats Sandals Casual Solid Buckle Strap shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeGIY Womens Slide Sandals Comfortable Open Toe Summer Beach Slip On Casual Wedge Platform SandalVIMISAOI Women's Black Fashion Pointed Toe Buckle Boots.DeePrint Women Swing shoes Wedge Platform shoes Fitness Walking SneakerHuhuj Fall shoes Loose Cake Recreational Students Comfortable with Flat Thick-Soled shoes Joker Glitter shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, HWQ WHW Women's Spring Summer Club shoes Glitter Wedding Party Evening Dress Casual Platform Sandals,42,blueeLucksender Womens Manmade Short Plush Round Toe Side Zip Platform Short Bootstherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Youthern Summer Rivet Bow Flat Flip Flops Women Wear Cool Slippers Jelly shoes).Sandals Female 2019 Summer New Thick with Pointed French Girls high Heels Korean Version of The Word Buckle Fairy shoes,A,US7.5 EU38 UK5.5 CN38High Heels Ladies Roman High Heels Heels Toe Sandals Party Wedding shoes However,Sandals, Buckles, Beach shoes, Summer, Open Toe, Couple, Men and WomenSexy Leopard Super High Heels Luxury Party Womens Pumps Dress shoes Pointed Toe Ladies Stilettos Heel shoes I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Women high Heel shoes Metal Square Toe Girls Party Wedding shoes Spring Pumps high Heels

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