The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Rhinestone Women Sandals Square Heel Party Summer shoes Woman High Heels Sandals with RhinestoneThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,York Zhu Slippers-Household Anti-Slip Indoor Home Slippers for Girls and Boys PlushKSC Womens Ankle Boots Faux Leather Lace Up Western Block Heel shoes Cognac Call It Spring Womens Charilyn Gladiator SandalSam Carle Women's Pumps,Closed- Toe Elegant Non-Slip Beige bluee Daily Office shoesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, KSC Womens Ankle Boots Camouflage Lining Lace Up Combat shoesand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Womens Sandals Flat Flip Flops Roman Wind Flower Glitter Post Toe Summer Beach SlipperZicac Leather Backpacks for Women Shoulder Bag Casual Fashion Daypacks Spring Fashion Leather PursesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

Kyle Walsh Pa Women's Elegant Classic Pointed Toe Loafers Flat Slip On Black

I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,DS By KSC Womens Platform shoes Ankle Strap Closed Toe Stiletto Pumps PinkGhapwe Women's Sexy Flowers Rhinestone Transparent Peep Toe High Wedge Heels Slide Mule Sandals Silver 8 M USAlfani Womens Herrly Open Toe Casual Slide SandalsCall It Spring Women's Olearien Dress Sandal I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Winter Women Slippers Solid color Casual Cotton Warm Home Anti-Slip Flat Plush Indoor shoes(Can Be Worn Outside)), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Womens Fashion Body Belly Waist Chain Bikini Beach Harness Necklace Claw Chain Diamond Body Chain Nightclub Party and Dancing Party Hollow Chest Chain), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Frestree Comfortable Slip On shoes Go Walk Sneakerand Frestree Comfortable shoes for Girls Flat Style shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, YU&XIN-Women's boots Spring and Autumn Sanding Low Heel Low Heel high shoes SizeAmoonyFashion Women's Soft Material Buckle Open Toe High-Heels Assorted color Sandalsduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Mu Dan Women's Elastic String Thong Ankle Strap Gladiator Sandals Casual Wear (5 B (M) US, Emerald)AmoonyFashion Womans Closed Round Toe High Heel Spikes Stilettos PU Frosted Solid Pumps, Red, 7.5 B(M) USLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Ladies breathable canvas shoes outdoor casual shoes fashion flat shoes ladies shoes ( color Black , Size 38 )U-MAC Rhinestone Thong Wedge Platform Sandals for Women Sexy Summer Ladies Casual Soft Flip Flops Slippers Crystal Outdoor Walking Beach shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Frestree Comfortable shoes for Men Basketball shoesMsMushroom Woman's Patent Leather Classic Practice Dance shoes 3 Heel Black.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).MsMushroom Woman's PU Soft Dance shoes Party Wear Red and Black 4 HeelMsMushroom Woman's Pu Snake Print Latin Dance shoes 4 Heel Pretty You London Women's Bootie Slipper with Bow DetailColnsky Women's Comfort Glitter Rhinestone Mules Low Heel Slide SandalsThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: WeenFashion Women's Frosted Round Closed Toe Kitten Heels Pull On Assorted color Pumps-shoesWeenFashion Women's Square Closed Toe Pull-on PU Assorted color Kitten-Heels Pumps-shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Onewus Women Fashion Ankle BootiesCity sneaks Women's Black Women's Bal Sneaker 11 Wide There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeAmoonyFashion Womens kitten heels PU Frost PU Solid Boots Heighten Inside Metalornament, Black, 7.5 B(M) USCarlos Foushee shoes Brand Women's Sexy Square Heel Pumps Pointed Toe Thick Heel High Heels Wedding shoes Woman Heels Valentine Pumps.Inlefen women's snow boots winter non-slip waterproof footwear woman shoesKongsta Women Snow Boots for Australia Faux Fur shoes 100% Genuine Leather Ankle Boots Warm Winter Boots Woman shoes Large Size 33-42 At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Women Fashion Boots with Lace-up Mid-Calf Solid Flat Heels PU Boots women shoesCambridge Select Women's T-Strap Thong Buckle Flat Sandaltherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Step n Style Women Khussa shoes Punjabi Jutti Mojari Maharani Look Flat Ballet shoes bluee).Diamant Damen Tanzschuhe 147-068-391, Women’s Ballroom Dance shoesLifeStride Women's Lively Pump, Black, 10 W US However,Women's Thick Sole Buckle High Heel Short Boots Side Zip Platform Ankle BootiesIron Fist Womens Grave Robber Boot Combat Boot I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.KUIBU Women Warm Winter All-Match Slip-On Non-Slip Platform PU High Heel Sneaker Athletic Toning shoes

AllhqFashion Women's Open-Toe Buckle High Heels Solid Sandals SaraIris Women's Pointed Toe Chunky Heels Stretchy Cloth Over The Knee High Boots Winter shoes

Kenneth Cole Unlisted Women's Part Film Ankle Boot