The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Fly London Womens Yobe Office Slip On Wedge Heel Leather Perforated shoesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Air Jordan 2 Retro BG - 4Y Infrared 23 - 395718 023Prada Women's 1W415D Leather Boots Lacoste Womens Navy White Helaine Runner 116 3 SPW TrainersFlat shoes, Women's Beach shoes - sardin Cloth - Casual shoes - Sandalsgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Art Unisex Adults’ 146 Open Toe Sandalsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. SJP by Sarah Jessica Parker Womens Charlie Slide SandalNike Air Huarache Run Su Mens Ah9710-002We integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Rieker Mens Diego 13422 Leather shoesAvec Les Filles Womens Wren Western BootDiba True Women's, River Queen Ankle BootsHush Puppies Kinsee Carine Women's I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Sanita Margo Women's Bronze Leather Clogs US10 EU41), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Mima Venezia Women's 709 Mid Heel Pump, Black Red), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Nike Air Max Penny Mens 685153-401and British Collection Bristols Retro shoes Black). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, LVYING Warm Winter Knitted Stretch Fabric Slip-On Socks Boots Low Heel Short Boots Women Pointed Toe Women Ankle BootsNine Seven Suede Leather Women's Pointed Toe Chunky Heel Side Zip Handmade Bow Decorated Knee Bootsduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Ladies Booties, Casual Chunky Heel Round Toe Mid-Calf Boots Women's Lace Thick Heel Martin Boots (color B, Size 37)Unlimited energy Men's Prince Leather Lined Dress Cap-Toe Oxfords Business shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? T-JULY Women Motorcycle Boots Fashion Platform Wedge Ultra High Heels Mid Calf Boots Punk Rivet Autumn Winter Martin BootsSoulsfeng Mens Athletic Sandals Womens Sneakers Fashion Openwork Craft Running shoes Sport Sandals Fit for Wearing in Summer.And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?HI&HANN Men Black Velvet Print Black Rivet shoes Slip-on Dress Loafer Smoking Slipper Male's FlatsVivoBarefoot Womens Primus Trail Fg L Mesh Trail Runner.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Salvatore Ferragamo Women's Tropea Wedge SandalsEastland Men's Santa FE Oxford Fred Perry Mens B1 Tennis Canvas TrainersLacoste Men's LA Piquee 119 1 CMA Trainers, WhiteThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Nine West Women's Jacknet Fabric Heeled SandalBoots Men's Leather Zipper Chelsea Boots Chukka Hiking Ankle Boots Desert Snow Boots Work Bootsfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.MINIVOG Women's Buckled Straps Leather Vamp Treaded Sole Platform Knee-high Boots BlackWomen's Short Boots High Heel Sleeve Ankle Boots Round Head Thick with Casual Smart Party shoes Adult Boots There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeLacoste Men's Orseit Oxford SneakerGentle Souls Womens Trevor Hiker Cozy Sneaker Bootie Ankle Boot.MBT Women's 90000116L White Polyester SandalsWomen's Chelsea Boots Chunky Stacked Heel Anti Slip Almond Toe Platform Ankle shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, ANTIDOTI Women's MCGLCAB000005043E Green Leather SandalsUnusual High Heels Ankle Boots Pointed Toe Footwear Fur Kid Suede Female Zip shoes Woman Winter Blacktherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Men's leather shoes Peas shoes Leisure British Style Tide Lounger).Converse CT Multi Panel Multi Womens Trainers Size 4 UKAlexander McQueen Women's Leather Ankle Boots However,GLOBALWIN GW Mens 17103 Winter Boot 9.5MFly London Womens Yuzu800fly Wedge Sandal I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Lucchese Women's Ombre Gemma Cowgirl Boot Snip Toe - M5116

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