The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. TRENDSup Collection Women Fashion Gladiator Lace Up SandalsThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Skechers Womens Side Street- Awesome Sauce SneakerBunting with Sitting Birds Women's Jogger Lightweight Basketball Sneakers Gym Outdoor Walking shoes Reinhar Classic Wedding Platform Comfort Kitten Heel Rhinestones Stud Bridal Platform PumpsFOOTTECH Womens House Slippers Indoor Comfy Soft House shoes Slip on Anti Slip Memory Foam Home Slippersgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Lucky Brand Womens Eaviee Leather Closed Toe Ankle Wrap Ballet Flatsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. FUDYNMALC Womens Soft Tassels Leather Comfort Driving Traveling Dancing Shopping Loafers shoesDear Time Women Bowknot Pointed Toe Flats shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Skechers Womens Go Walk Lite - 15431 Boat shoesClarks Womens Step June Tide SandalBC Footwear Womens Depth Chelsea BootHoneystore Bling Women's Sandals Crystals Rhinestones Low Heels shoes for Party I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Women's shoes Increased Breathable, Anti-Static Sneaker Fashion Comfort Mesh Sneakers Breathable Impact Resistant Trainers shoes Camping Gym Park (color A, Size 35)), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. CYBLING Fashion Women Stiletto Heels Pointed Toe Pumps for Wedding Slip On Dress shoes), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Wallhewb Women Spring Design Platform Sneakers Fashion Thick Soled Wedges Casual shoes Joker Fashionable Soft Wear Resistant Beautiful Elegant Green 8.5 M US shoesand Rieker Women Flat Slipper red, (red Mogano) 53960-33). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Marc Defang New York Women's 5 Rounded Closed Toe Patent Leather PumpsBtrada Women's Ankle Boots Knitting Lace Up Ladies Sexy Booties Fashion Zipper Thin Heels Derss shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Rieker Damen-Sandalette - E 1 2 red (41)Elsa Wilcox Women Round Toe Buckle Low Heel Retro Comfortable Dress Oxfords shoes Vintage Slip On Oxford shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Teva Women's Tirra Slide SandalRieker Women Lace-Up shoes black, (black fumo marine) 55818-02And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Perfect-looking High Heels Style Women Classic Stiletto Ladies Sexy Sanke Patern Pointed Toe PumpsHavaianas Womens Slim Open Toe Beach, Red, Size 11.0.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Liliana Women Leatherette Designer Collage Pointy Toe Single Sole Stiletto Pump CH44 - White LeatheretteMarc Fisher Womens Casha Dress Sandal Cotswold Unisex Chase Touch Fastening and Zip up Winter BootSandals Water shoes Mens Womens Quick Dry Sports Aqua shoes Unisex Swim shoes with Drainage Holes for Swim Walking Flip FlopsThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: 1TO9 Womens Boots Closed-Toe Lace-Up Adjustable-Strap Mid-Heel Warm Lining Rubber Waterproof Platform Urethane Boots MNS02558AdeeSu Womens Platform Fashion Ruffles Urethane Boots SXC01804factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.HUAN Unisex Men Boy's Soccer Training shoes Anti-Slip Anti-Shake Professional Spike Competition Football Boots shoesRoman shoes Sandals Women Fish Mouth Hollow Spring Summer Sandals (Black) (color Black, Size 7.0 US) There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeEoyles gy Summer Floral Flower Pretty Women Slip Resistant Lightweight Running Basketball shoesSC35 Jenell Side Zip Ankle Boots, Black, 8 US.AdeeSu Ladies Metal Chain Square Heels Pull-On Frosted BootsNike Air Force1 (GS) Youth Basketball shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Zarbrina Womens Low Spike Heel Platform Sock Ankle Boots Fashion Sexy Pointed Toe Flock Solid Stretch Fabric Slip On Winter shoesT-JULY Women Chunky Heel Ankle Strap Gladiator Sandals Women's Summer shoes Fashion Female Cover Heel Party shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (J Slides Womens Artsy Sneaker).Mally Oxfords-shoes Womens Leather BeigeWeiPoot Women's Soft Material Solid Pointed-Toe Heighten Inside Boots However,JJF shoes Blossom Womens Robin46 Rhinestone Sparkle Glitter Formal Evening Classic Low Heel Pumps,Nude,7Bamboo Surprise-01N Natural Women Riding Boots I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Floral FIC Corina Women Wide Width Two Tone Formal Dress shoes (Size & Measurement Guides Available)

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