The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Panama Jack Panama 03 Wool B1 Nappa vintaThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Liu Jo Women's I19117J181122222 Black Viscose DressPASHA Gorgeous Jeweled Genuine Leather shoes, Style Corinth Rainbow Ted Baker Womens IJOE SUED AF Black Sandalblack Giardini Women's A806800DE100 Black Leather Pumpsgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Modello Crocette - Handmade Italian Leather Mens color orange Oxfords Dress shoes - Cowhide Smooth Leather - Lace-Upand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Phoentin flower golden women sandals birdcage strange heels ankle strap buckle ladies sandal361 Degrees Womens Sensation 3 Athletic & Sneakers orangeWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Marc Fisher Womens camilla Open Toe Casual Platform Sandals, Brown, Size 6.5Fiesso by Aurelio Garcia FI-7101 Crystal Clear Rhinestones Over White Suede Slip On LoaferAdidas Women's POD-S3.1 Legend Purple Hi-Res Yellow CG6177Stuart Weitzman Women's Slidein Slide Sandal I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. GENNIA RICRUZ - Women Bridal Wedding Closed Toe Leather Pumps and Stiletto Heel), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Pleaser Women's Beau 601RS Platform Slide), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, REVITALIGN Kena - Womens Supportive Flip Flops Black - 6and Remonte - R228422 - R228422). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, ASH inc Womens As-Lucy Heeled SandalB.o.c. Richardson Booties Black 11Mduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Donald J Pliner Women's Majio Tortoise Wedge Sandal,Brown, 9 N, AADiesel Men's Edgekore D-klosure Ii Winter BootLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? GI CAPRI Women's SM41BROWN Beige Leather SandalsReebok Work Sublite Cushion Work RB041 Women& 39;s Alloy Toe Athletic Work shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?CALLAGHAN 21913 Women's shoes with Shiny Leather HeelFinn Comfort - Kos Jasmin Nappaseda Okapi - 02554900418.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Hoka ONE ONE Women's Arahi 2 (Wide)Columbia Women's Bugaboot Plus Titanium Omni-Heat Outdry Zumba Women's Air Classic Fashion Dance Workout shoes with Max Impact PredectionAntelope Women's 942 Leather Open View SandalsThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Via Spiga Womens Halina Sandal Flat SandalIcebug Women's Metro2 BUGrip Traction Studded Winter Bootfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Andre Assous Womens Novalee Flip-FlopKEEN Women's Durand Mid-Rise Waterproof Hiking Boot There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeMiz Mooz Women's Maui in SageSteve Madden Women's Francine Dress Open.Nine West Womens Akeelah Suede Pointed Toe FlatSam Edelman Women's Gardenia Gladiator Sandal At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Natural World Women's Lace-Up SneakerFly London Womens YUMO027FLY Silver Off-White Borgogna Rug 36 (US Women's 5.5-6) Mtherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Kamik Women's Valletta Insulated Winter Boot).Donald J Pliner Women's Devi4 Riding BootALEXANDER HOTTO Women's MCGLCAS000005024E bluee Suede Ankle Boots However,Ash Women's Lucky Woven Knit Trainers WhiteAdipower Predator TRX FG Black, orange I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.FABI Women's FD4617blue bluee Leather Pumps

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