The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. GTVERNH-Autumn and Winter in Europe All-Match Sexy Martin Boots, Female Boots with fine Pointed high-Heeled Boots, Female Side ZipperThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,SK Studio Women's Mesh Canvas Slip On Fashion shoes FlatsLucky Brand Womens Hartlee Dress Sandal Women's Booties Leather Lacquered Round Head Wedge Heel Boots Handmade Decorative Retro Style Cotton BootsYoki Women's GHANDI-45 Lace-Up Fabric Combat Bootsgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, DEIMILLE Sandals Womens Snakeskin Bronzeand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. White Mountain Womens Pandora Platform SandalT-JULY Women Leather Casual High Top Wedges shoes Ladies Height Increasing Platform shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

T-JULY Spring Autumn Women Thick High Heel Over The Knee Boots Woman Thigh High Boots Plus Size shoes

I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Brinley Co Womens Anette Faux Suede Ankle Wrap Braided Rope FlatsWomen's Short Ankle Riding Boots with Chunky Heel Bootie Three Buckled StrapT-JULY Womens Wedge Platform Peep Toe High Heel Sandals Buckle Ankle Strap Slip on Dress Walking SlipppersNine Seven Genuine Leather Women's Pointy Toe Rhinestone Handmade Dress Flat shoes I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Twisted X Boots Women's WDM0049 Boat shoes), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. FSJ Women Sexy Peep Toe Cutout Pumps Sandals D'Orsay Stiletto Heels Party Evening shoes Size 4-15 US), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Brown Leather Shoulder Bag Womens Classic Flap Over Messenger Casual Handbag Adaand Frye Women's Jamie Zip Boot). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Women's shoes PU 2018 New Spring Summer Fall Low Heel Multicolor Rivets Pointed Toe for Party & Evening Dress Office & CareerMen's Women's Outdoor Sandals Large Size Sport Hiking Sandals Unisex Quick Dry Predective Toecap Summer Water shoes Hiking shoes,b,36during experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Lace up Mary Jane Women Lazy Leather Flat Soft shoes (color Brown, Size CA 8)Dockers by Gerli Women's 42da203-680760 TrainersLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Mata shoes Women's Suede Fringe Wedges (color Tan, Size 7 M US)Converse Men's All Star Chuck Taylor Double Tongue Ox Casual shoes White, Maroon, Berry (7)And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?GAOFENG Sandals Footwear Women's shoes Open Toe Slingback Clip Ankle Adjustable Pregnant Wedges Non-Slip Middle Heel Casual for Summer (color Yellow, Size 39)JANET & JANET Oxfords-shoes Womens Black.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Replay Womens Heels GWP3H .003.C0003LFahrenheit Women's Landi-13 Platform Bootie Pumps Fashion shoes MET RXL Autumn,Pointed,Side Empty shoes Lady, fine,High Heels,Nude shoes Light-Mouth SandalsHUAN Women's shoes Glitter Summer Comfort Sandals Slippers Rhinestone for Casual gold, RedThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: YBeauty Women's Peep Toe Pumps Black Patent Leather Pumps Stiletto High Heels Big Size Slip On shoesEARTH ORIGINS Women's, Rhoda Mid Heel Shootiesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Ellie shoes Women's 8 Inch Pointed Stiletto Sandal With Glitter In Platform (Black;9)Nine Seven Women's Suede Leather Flat Heel Mules Handmade Comfortable Pointy Toe Slip On Loafers with Bow There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placePremier Standard - Women's Over The Knee Side Zipper Boot - Trendy Low Block Heel shoes - Sexy Over The Knee BootPodoWell Unisex Adults Aquitaine Low-Top Sneakers.Women's shoes Suede Fall & Winter Comfort Sneakers Creepers Black GreenOpportunity shoes - Corso Como Womens Armando Fashion Boot At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Geox Women's D Ophira B Low-Top SneakersKaty Perry Womens The Unity Slippertherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Totes Women's Microsuede Nola Hoodback Slipper).Spring Step Women's Macbeth Engineer BootBERTERI Women's Winter Warm Over Knee High-Heeled Boot(Red, Black, Grey, Brown) However,Nine Seven Genuine Leather Women's Square Toe Chunky Heel Slip On Handmade Comfort Dress Pumps shoesForever FQ13 Women's Glitter Ankle Strap Wrapped Wedge Heel Dress Sandals Half Size Big I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Rocket Dog Womens Romar Base Pu Western Boot

Converse Chuck Taylor All Star Double Tongue Oxford Womens Style 556679F-Wht Oran Sunset Size 8 M US AmoonyFashion Women's Round-Toe Low-Top High-Heels Solid Blend Materials Boots, BUSXT117581

Steve Madden Womens Survive Patent Espadrille Wedges