The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Spring and Autumn Men's Outdoor Sports shoes Trend Wild Youth Casual shoes Running shoes Sneakers Yellow,43The Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,AnMengXinLing Fashion Black Knee High Boots Women Block Low Heel Square Toe Leather Riding Boot Zip Up Winter Slouchy Combat BootSneakers HAIZHEN, Men's shoes, Sports Hiking shoes, Thick-Soled Wear-Resistant Travel Walking shoes Cafeblack - Derby Coda DI RondineNike Vapor Speed 2 TD Mens Football Cleat Size 10 Navy blueegenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Base London Mens Eclipse Suede Lace Up Trainer Navy Bordo Size UK 7 EU 41and molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Bates Men's Reyes High Motorcycle BootStep n Style Mens bluee Khussa shoes Punjabi Jutti Ethnic Jutti Beaded shoes Indian shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Amblers Safety Mens FS62 Waterproof Lace up Gibson Safety shoes Black Size UK 8 EU 42Clarks Mens Vargo Apron BootsNike Men's Incursion Mid SE shoes Light Bone Khaki-Sail-Vivid SulfurCaterpillar Mens Signify Fashion Sneaker I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Therafit Mens Laura Low Top Slip On Fashion Sneakers), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Women's Ankle Boots, Vintage Riding Boots Zipper Leather Rubber Sole Brown Size 35-40), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Men's Martin Boots Casual High Top Chelsea shoes Lace Up Fashion 2019 Spring Fall shoes Blackand Men's shoes Mesh Spring Fall Low-Top Sneakers Lace-up Lightweight Breathable Comfort Athletic shoes Outdoor Air Cushion Hiking shoes Running shoes Fitness shoes Personality Light Soles). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, MUMUWU Men's Lined Oxford shoes Loafer Casual Boat shoes Slip On Style Genuine Leather Round Toe Flat (color Black, Size 10.5 D(M) US)Superga Women's 2750 Cotu Sneakerduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Altra Men's Instinct 3.5 Running shoes, bluee Silver, 8.5 M USZaxy Womens Hi-lo Sandal Plat Wedge SandalLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Itasca Men's Neo Hunting Size Ankle BootNike Women’s Air Max Thea Gymnastics shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Pleaser Womens Ado1017rsf C-mc Fsch BootECCO Womens Exceed Sport Fashion Sneaker.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Merrell Women's Moab 2 Vent Hiking shoesRocket Dog JAZZIN Ladies Canvas Trainers White JARLIF Men's Breathable Fashion Walking Sneakers Lightweight Athletic Tennis Running shoes US6.5-11.5Kenneth Cole REACTION Men's Corey Flex Lace Up shoes, Dark BrownThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Jack & Jones Men's Jfwgobi Leather Desert BootsSHOE CLARKS ORSON BAY MARINO NOBUCKfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Nike Mercurial Victory V AG-R Mens Football Boots 717140 Soccer CleatsWomen's Martin Boots New Spring Leather High-Top Casual shoes Outdoor Walking shoes Cycling shoes Black Brown,Brown,38 There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeBONGZUO Business Oxford shoes, Men Dress Up Leather Personality British Style Trends Carved Brock Men Leather shoes Winter, YMP86-203Frye Women's Elenora Western Booties.Winter High Top Boots Fur Lined Warm Comfy Men's Snow shoes Non Slip Waterproof Outdoor Work Sneakers Size:38-46New Balance Women's 1080v9 Fresh Foam Running shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, New Balance Unisex Babies' Fs996 Trainersshoes Men Men's Ankle Boots Casual Fashion Retro Comfortable Non-Slip Outsole High Top Work shoes (color Black, Size 8.5 D(M) US)therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Socofy Leather Ankle Bootie, Women's Vintage Handmade Buckle Pattern 7 B(M) US).Steve Madden Men's Caspian LoaferAdidas Messi 16.1 Street Mens Indoor Soccer Sneakers Boots However,Men's Business Oxford Handcrafted Vintage OX Leather Breathable Formal shoes (color Brown, Size 8.5 D(M) US)Liyuandian Womens Cross Toe Double Buckle Strap Summer Leather Flat Mayari Sandals I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Hi-Tec Mens Ox Discovery Mid I Wp Hiking Boot

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