The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Men's Height Increasing Semi Dressy & Casual Boat shoes 3 The Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,ROMIKA Women's Mokassetta 294 MuleARIAT Women's Skyline Slip-on Hiking shoes Skechers Work Flex Advantage SR Bronwood Men's Slip OnPelle Moda Women's Faye Sandalgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Taos Women's Dandy bluee Washed Canvas Sneakers-and-Athletic-shoes 6 Mand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Men's Boots, Fall Spring Leather Autumn and Winter Big Tooling shoes Casual Outdoor Sports Hiking High Boots Non-Slip Men's Boots Sneaker Boot Comfortable Running Boot Walking Boot XUEKAANAS Womens Lapa Embellished Gladiator Flat Sandal SandalWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Avec Les Filles Women's Blaye Flat SandalNew Balance - Mens shoesMizuno Women's Synchro MX Running shoes WhiteBase London CARNOUSTIE Mens Leather Moccasin Loafers Waxy Black I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Marc New York by Andrew Marc Mens Harman Chukka Boot), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Bugatti Men Lace-up shoes Black, (black) 312101161000-1000), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Dockers Mens Westwood Chelsea Bootand Laura Vita Women's Delphine 04 Trainers). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Ailj Snow Boots, Men's Warm Boots Leather Thickening Plus Velvet Winter Boots Short Boots Cotton shoes Non-Slip (3 colors) (color Brown, Size 44 EU 11 US 10 UK 27cm JP)Dansko Womens Brigitte Flat Sandalduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Qiucdzi Mens Sport Sandals Breathable Outdoor Fisherman shoes Adjustable Closed Toe Summer Leather LoaftersNike Free Tr 8 Mens Running Trainers Ah9395 Sneakers shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? ODOUK Men's Sandals Barefoot Hiking shoes Lightweight Outdoor Training Water Walking shoes(Black-b,12 M US)Alpine Swiss Leo Men Sneakers Flex Knit Tennis shoes Casual Athletic LightweightAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Nike Men's Free Trainer 5.0 V6 Amp Ankle-High Synthetic Tennis shoesG.H. Bass & Co. Mens Shane Engineer Boot.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Nike - Mercurial Victory VI CR7 DF FGWomen's Vionic, Upton Ankle Boot Rockport Bayley Venetian Mens shoes blueeB.O.C. Born Mens - PoolThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Cole Haan Womens Gabby Stud Sandal Heeled SandalMen's shoes Leather Fall Winter Combat Boots Boots Mountaineer shoes Rubber Non-Slip High-Top Tread Anti-Slip,Wearproof Leather Leather Hiking Climbing (color A, Size 41)factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Oka-B Matte Lightweight Rubber Ballet Flat Georgia with colorful InsolesDemonia DEMONIAM Mens GRAVEDIGGER-02 BVL shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeTexcy Luxe]Leather Lightweight Oxfords Men shoes Lace-Up Black 25.5shoes Men Men Drive Loafers Casual New Legume shoes Soft Genuine Leather Breathable Low Top Large Size Boat Moccasins (color White, Size 10 D(M) US).Yavero Mens Hiking shoes Outdoor Low Top Trekking Hiking Boots Walking SneakersOfficial Kappa Farul Trainers Mens Athleisure Footwear shoes Sneakers At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, ASICS Mens Gel Contend 5 Cushioned Lightweight Running shoesMerrell Womens Applaud Mesh Slide Hiking shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Men's Martin Boots Fall Winter Comfort Lace-up Waterproof Ankle Outdoor Boots Warm Plush Inside High-top Boots (color A, Size 38)).Nike Womens Hyperdunk 2017 TB Mid Top Lightweight Basketball shoesDSFGHE Men and Women Fashion Sports shoes High to Help Light Walking shoes Casual Running Hiking shoes However,English Laundry Mens Wanstead OxfordKEEN Utility - Men's CSA Asheville ESD (Aluminum Toe) Work shoes, Black Raven, 13 EE I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.DB shoes Extra Wide and Extra Deep Easy to wear Sandals in Brown

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