The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Nine West Women's Xande Synthetic ClogsThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,WeiPoot Women's PU Closed Toe Boots with Metal Nail and OrnamentedAdidas Men's Deerupt Runner, Grey Three Light Solid Grey Gum 1 Pajar Women's Grip HIGH Snow BootsNIKE ZOOM FOREVER XC 3 (ADULT UNISEX)generating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Magnum Men's Stealth Force 6.0 Sz Ct Bootand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Men's Business Dress shoes Men's Leather Casual shoesPUMA Mens RBR Rider Culture Walking shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Ish Original Official Men I Am Mom Low Top Rubber Sole Casual Canvas Sneaker shoesPropet Men's Galway Walker Slip-on,Dark Brown Grain,10 XX (US Men's 10 Eeeee)Frye Womens Chrissy Side Ghillie Dress SandalFREE SOLDIER Men's Lightweight Tactical Boots - Desert Tan I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Adidas X 15.1 CT Indoor Soccer shoes (Solar Yellow, Black)), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Donald J Pliner Womens Lanasp-ks Loafer Flat), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, CMM Men's Brogue Comfort Dress Oxford shoes Lace-up Wingtip Business Casual shoesand Eureka USA Women's Dianne Leather Ballet Flat). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, MARC JOSEPH NEW YORK Mens Genuine Leather Oxford Lace-Up Wingtip Dress shoes OxfordRoyal bluee Rhinestone Sandals Thin High Heels Pointed Toe Sandals bluee Crystal Heels shoes Fashion High Heel shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Nawilbi Men's Tilden Cap Prince Leather Lined Dress Cap-Toe Lace-up Oxfords shoesGLOBALWIN GW M1663-3 Loafers shoes 9 MLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Kingsons Multifunction Travel Bags Large Capacity Backpacks Man Multipurpose Bag for Male Short Journey Business Trip BlackDSFGHE Men's Hiking shoes Summer Leather Lace-up shoes Low to Help Round Head Vents Flat shoes Rubber Non-SlipAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Pleaser Womens SEDUCE-3028 R BootsPROZIS - Sneakers - Match M bluee -.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).J's.o.l.e Men's Leather Lined Wingtip Lace Oxford Dress shoesVIISHOW Serene Mens Fashion Boots Leather Army Boots Safety Boots for Men - Black, Brown Options Polo Ralph Lauren Men's Delaney SneakerMerrell Mens Sandspur Oak SandalThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: XUJW-Sandals, Men's Summer Genuine Cowhide Leather Beach Slippers Casual Non-Slip Handwork Sole Sandals, Perfect for The Beach Or Any Outdoor Scene.Regatta Mens Denshaw Leather Bootsfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.MUMUWU Men's Business Oxford Casual Fashion Antirust Metal Buckle Loop Strap Convenient Formal shoes (color Brown, Size 9.5 D(M) US)Cole Haan Womens Tali Bow Flat Sandal Flat Sandal There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeKelsi Dagger Brooklyn Womens Taro OxfordAdidas Performance Men's Voloossage Athletic Sandal.PUMA Men's Tsugi Jun Baroque, FIG-Shadow Purple BlackDesi Hangover Genuine Premium Leather Handmade Mens Casual shoes Slip-on Loafers Hola Brown shoes, Free Express Shipping At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, THOMAS VALMAIN Oxfords-shoes Mens Leather BrownWinter Warm Ankle Booties Fully Fur Lined Anti-Slip Men's Snow Boots Leather Waterproof Work Hiker shoes Size:5-12therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Vionic Womens Paulie Leather Sandals).Adidas ORIGINALS Women's shoes Stan Smith Bold SneakersASICS Men's GT-2000 4 Running shoes However,Santimon-Men's Comfortable Genuine Leather Driving shoes Horsebit Moccasins Loafer Doug shoesGlobe Option Evo shoes - Black Black I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Tesla Men's Lightweight Sports Running shoes L542

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