The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. WeiPoot Women's Solid Closed-Toe Boots with Platform and RuchedThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Fly London Womens Yidi Wedge Open Toe Cut Out Fashion Leather SandalsNike Men's Vandal High Supreme Leather Basketball shoes Liveinu Men's Lace Up Military Combat Work Desert Ankle Boot 38Reebok CL Leather 2.0 Mens Mens Bs5104generating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Antelope Women's 107 Metallic Leather Hi-V Ballet shoes - Pebbledand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Santimon Men's shoes Chelsea Boots Duke Easy Slip On Zipper Chukka Ankle BootsIGI Women's Dky 31605 TrainersWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Geox Women's D New Moena D Low-Top SneakersKELME Copa Indoor Football Futsal Trainers Mens White Soccer 5 A-Side Sneakers2018 Mens Oxfords shoes, Men's Business Oxford shoes, Casual Comfortable Soft Lightweight Slip On Formal shoesWomens Adjustable Bootie Slipper (L, purplec) I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. T.U.K. Unisex V6804 Creeper Oxford), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Skechers Mens Summits Athletic shoes), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Men's shoes Knitting Fall & Winter Sports shoes High-Top Sneakers Lace Up Casual shoes Running shoes Hiking shoes Basketball shoes,A,42and Puma Techlo Everfit+ Night Cat). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Hush Puppies Womens Coco Moccassin Slip On shoes Black Size UK 4 EU 37Nike Men's Blazer MID '09 ND Basketball shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Warm Snow Boots Winter Warm Ankle Boots Fur Lining Boots Waterproof ThickeningBugatti Mens Lace-up shoes BlackLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Men's High-top shoes Fall Winter New Martin Boots Lace-up Booties Tooling Motorcycle Boots Non Slip Shock Absorption Black (color Black, Size 44)Naturalizer Womens Jules Heeled SandalAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Creative Recreation Carda Hi Athletic Men's shoes SizeCALDEN Men's Invisible Height Increasing Elevator shoes - Black Patent Leather Lace-up Formal Tuxedo Oxfords - K911929-3 Inches Taller.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Skechers Women& 39;s Petite Parallel-Plot-Square Perf Peep Toe Slingback Wedge SandalVintage Foundry Men's The Obsidian Monk Strap Steve Madden Womens Gavell Heeled SandalNike Men's Air Ring Leader Low, Black BlackThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Emporio Armani Zadar Mens Sandals RedSOUL Naturalizer Women's GINESSA Loafer Flat Mauve 11 M USfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Outdoor Sandals Leather Tide shoes 2019 New Korean Version of The Breathable Casual shoes Roman Hole shoes Sandals Men's Sandals Soft Cow Leather shoesNine Seven Genuine Leather Women's Pointed Toe Chunky Heel Business Office Handmade Trendy Pumps New There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeJ Slides Womens Anteek Fashion SneakerNike Big Lux Low Mens Trainers 854166 Sneakers shoes.UB-ONEMIX Mens Lightweight Running shoes Sneakers Walking Jogging shoesBugatti denim mens-Slipper hellblue 630652-55 At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Deer Stags Men's 902 Crest-Vega Cap Toe Oxford shoes BlackTed Baker Womens Mikali Pumptherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Le Coq Sportif Unisex Adults' Courtset Optical White Evergreen Trainers).Demonia Mens RANGER-320 B-WVL BootsNunn Bush Men's Westby Penny Loafer Black However,HAPPYSHOP Retro Men's Leather Leisure Work shoes Comfort Lace-up G'RSAGA Casual Spring shoesMen Hiking Boots,Men Running shoes - Breathable Casual Trainers, Soft, Comfortable Walking Sneakers, Durable Footwear I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.SouthBredhers Womens Sneakers Ultra Lightweight Mesh Breathable Athletic Running Walking Gym shoes Black 6 M US

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