The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Skechers Mens On-The-go Glide - 53781 Walking shoesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,NIKE Free RN CMTR Men's Lightweight Running shoes Night Maroon Gym Red Pure Platinum Ember Glow 831510-600 13 USMen's shoes Knitting Fall & Winter Sports shoes High-Top Sneakers Lace Up Casual shoes Running shoes Hiking shoes Basketball shoes,A,42 Acorn Mens Men's Rambler Mule Slipper MuleEnzo Romeo SPK14 Men's Fashion Tuxedo Smoking Dress Loafer Slip On shoesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, ICEFACE 2017 Mens West Lake Proud Snow Bootand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Men's shoes Casual Comfort Comfort Loafers & Slip-Ons Flat Loafers Spring Summer Hole Driving shoes,A,42K-Swiss Mens Classic Vn T Fashion SneakerWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Nike SB Zoom Bruin 'NBA' Black-Black universityred Size 10Skechers Go Vulc 2 - Eminence Cross Training Men's shoes SizeGrinders Cedric 8 Eye 2015 Mens Derby BootsAdidas Men's Ace 17.3 Primemesh Turf Soccer shoes I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Dublin Evolution Adults Double Zip Front Leather Paddock Boots), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Spring Step L'Artiste Women's Flourish Gladiator Sandal), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Vintage Foundry Men's The Kenyte Wingtip Dressand Men's shoes,Winter Leather,Comfort Martins Style,Casual Walking shoes,Cycling shoes,Outdoor Personality Running shoes,Hiking shoes,Large Size (color A, Size 43)). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Men's shoes Leather Fall & Winter Martin Boots Hiking shoes Work Boots Fashion Black Ankle Boots Casual Daily Walking shoesJack Wolfskin Mens MTN Attack 6 Texapore Low Men's Waterproof Hiking shoes Hiking shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Clarks Hamble Oak, Women’s DerbysGeox Avery Mens shoes blueeLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Vans Women’s Ultrarange Gore TrainersMen Outdoor Hiking shoes Warm Wear-Resistant Casual High-top Mountain Boots Breathable shoes Large SizeAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Schutz Women's Bayenne Gladiator Sandal2019 Mens Boots Oxfords for Men Desert Chukka Boots shoes Suede Leather Upper Lace Up Wear Resistant Classic Comfortable.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).J Slides Womens Anteek Fashion SneakerSyktkmx Womens Thong Flat Strappy Slip on Ankle Strap Cork Flip Flops Gladiator Sandals Adidas Originals Men's Tubular Shadow CK Mystery Ink Clear Grey Chalk White 13 D USDesiHangover Men's Pure Leather Handmade shoes Aristocrat BrownThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: XHD- Classic shoes Men's Simple Ankle Boots Casual Fashion Retro Comfortable Non-Slip Outsole High Top Work shoesDockers Men's Trustee Oxfords, Dark Tan, 15 M USfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Fila Men's Disruptor II Perspective SneakersClarks Men's Bosun Coast Sandals There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeByteks Authentic Ex-Soviet Tactical DutyHiking SWAT Boots (Lynx 2801) Made in Belarus.Mustang 4058305-2 Size 10.5 US Grey.Vlado Footwear Men Atlas II Sneakers shoesMerrell Mens Mens Tucson Mid Waterproof Walking Hiking Boots Black Mesh At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Ecco Soft 7 TRED M Ankle BootLehigh Safety shoes Unisex Steel Toe Internal Met Guard Mens LEHI011therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Hush Puppies Womens Envoi Cassale Wedge).Adidas X 15.1 Soft Ground SG Mens Football Boots - 12.5UKAdidas Men's Cloudfoam Flow 2.0 Solar bluee2 White Night Grey Sneaker 7 D (M) However,XUE Men's shoes Leather Summer Slippers & Flip-Flops Sandals Rivet shoes Flat LoBlaklader Black Dobby Heavy Worker Pants 168013809900 I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Ted Baker Womens Kawaa Pump

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