The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Slippers Lightweight Breathable Outdoor Beach shoes Men's shoes Men's Leather Sandals (color Black, Size 43)The Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Men's Outdoor Boots Plus Velvet Keep Warm Tooling Boots Fall Winter New Casual Leather Booties Ankle Boots (color A, Size 45)Adidas Originals Women's Falcon Athletic shoes Base London Mens Pike Leather shoesNike Men's SB Zoom Dunk Low Pro, Wolf Grey Summit White-Clear, 6 M USgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Men's Leather Boots Fall Winter top Casual Retro Zipper Martin Boots Non Slip Keep Warm Booties (color Black, Size 43)and molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Cole Haan Womens Sadie Ankle Strap Wedge 85mm PlatformMen Boots Winter High-top Toe Men Leather Martin Ankle Boot Europe and The United Waterproof Lace-up BootWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Todd Welsh VASS Men's Casual shoesDig dog bone Men's Genuine Leather Leisure Lace Up Work BootsNaot Women's Susan Wedge SandalGeox Womens Arethea 1 Moccasin I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Joyhul 2019 Black Beach Women flip Flops Women Ladies Girls Floral Flat Flip Flops Casual Sandals Slippers Beach shoes G25,Red,7,United States), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. GouuoHi Womens Slippers Ladies Casual Summer Lipper Indoor Thick Soles Non-Slip Slippers Soild color Personality Creativity Black White for Women), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, BARCA Oxfords-shoes Mens Leather Blackand Sam Edelman Womens Thora Knee High Boot). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Men's Boots, Outdoor Casual Leather Martin Boots New Large Size High-Top Lace-Up Fashion Motorcycle Boots,B,38Dr. Comfort Tonya Women's Slipper Boot Pinkduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Phil Betty Mens Oxford shoes Black Slip-On Breathable Fashion Business Casual Formal shoesReebok Men's Fusion Flexweave CageLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Men's Leisure Driving Loafers Round Toe Oxfords Casual Flat Penny shoes Leather Upper Slip On Walking Lightweight Boat shoes (color Wine Red, Size 8.5 D(M) US)Adidas Barricade 2018 Tennis shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Nike Air Max Typha 2 Mens Ao3020-100MULINSEN Men's and Women Unisex Couple Casual Fashion Sneakers Running shoes.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Men's Loafers Boat shoes Penny Driving Leather Smooth Men's Loafers (color Brown, Size 9 D(M) US)Jomos Primera, Men's Low-Top Sneakers GUESS Womens Vianne 2 Almond Toe Over Knee Fashion BootsNike Men's Lunar Legend 7 Pro IC shoes (Racer bluee Black Metallic Silver)The costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: YYIN Man Camouflage Boots High-top Combat Boots Oxford shoes Hiking shoes Waterproof Cycling,Running Work Safety BootsSkechers Men's Telfin-Sawaga Military and Tactical Boot Black Leather 7H M USfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Ahnu Men's Stockton Leather OxfordMen's shoes Leather Spring & Fall High-top Casual shoes Fashion Lace Up Deck shoes Flat Heel Sports shoes Cycling shoes Hiking shoes YAN (color B, Size 43) There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeDesiHangover Men's Pure Leather Handmade shoes Aristocrat NaturalSnowman Lee Mens Winter 3 Eye Lined Boat shoes Leather Slip Resistant Classic Dress shoes.Deltaplus Men's D-Spirit S1P Low shoes US Size 13 BlackTOTO - H32051 - 2.8 Inches Taller - Height Increasing Elevator shoes - Black Leather Lightweight Lace-up Casual shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Aldo Men's NALESSI Oxford, Navy, 10 D USWalking Cradles Womens Jolly Dress Pumptherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Adidas Goletto VI TF shoes Kid's Soccer Black).GouuoHi Womens Slippers Womens Autumn Winter Lady Cotton Slippers Stripe Patchwork color Warm Slip-Proof Shock-Absorbing Casual Daily Stylish Ladies Home SlippersBugatti denim mens-Slipper hellblue 630652-55 However,First Layer Cowhide Leather Men's Bag Multi Compartment Large Capacity Business BagColumbia Women's Megavent Trail shoes Green I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Diesel Men S-Tunnyngs Fashion shoes

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