The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. SELCNG Hiking shoes mesh Breathable Cushions Shock Absorption Fashion Outdoor Sports shoes-White-45The Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,DSFGHE Men's Boots Martin Combat Boots Army Chelsea Tactical Outdoor Boots Hiking High Top shoesKaty Perry Women's Mia Heeled Sandal XIANGBAO-Personality Casual Dress Boat shoes for Men Breathable Loafers Bland Leather Speed Hand-Made Oxford shoes Slip On Round ToeKEEN Women's Clearwater CNX Leather Sandalgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Dyeables Women's Nicky Sandal Brownand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Men's Boots, Fall and Winter Plus Velvet Cotton Boots British Big Job Tooling Boots with The Tide Boots to Keep Warm Casual Desert Boots XUE (color A, Size 44)Sperry Top-Sider Men's Leeward Boat shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,ED Ellen DeGeneres Womens LucerneSenxi Outdoor Hiking shoes for Men and Women Outdoor Leisure shoes 4 color OptionalI'll NEVER BE HER Mens shoes Casual British Split Leather Lace Up Spring Men shoes Footwear Classic Fashion Work Design shoes Men BlackConverse Men's One Star, RED Pink I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Nike Women’s W Air Zoom Fearless Fk 2 Low-Top Sneakers Black), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Adrianna Papell Women's Hollis Dress Pump), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Dig dog bone Men's Drive Loafers for Casual Comfortable and Breathable Soft Pure color Slipand Nine Seven Patent Leather Women's Pointed Toe Stiletto Heel Elegant Handmade Classy Trendy Pumps shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Salomon Women's XA Baldwin Trail Running shoesSteve Madden Mens Lassow Oxfordduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Lucky Brand Womens Aisha Leather Open Toe Casual Slide SandalsMen's Leather shoes Youth Business England Black Men's shoes Casual Belt First Layer Soft Leather Men's shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? 2019 Mens Boots Ankle Boots for Men High Top Leather Upper Round Toe Comfortable Wear Resistant Casual Classic Lace Up Fashion shoesInov-8 Men's F-Lite 235 V2And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Emporio Armani Zadar Mens Sandals WhiteDesi Hangover Genuine Premium Leather Handmade Mens Casual shoes Slip-on Loafers Hola Brown Oil bluee Red Stripes shoes.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Adidas Originals Stan Smith PK Primeknit Mens Sneakers shoesCole Haan Womens Marta Pump 65mm Waterproof Pump Men's Outdoor Sports shoes Trend Black Spring and Autumn Wild Casual Breathable Running shoes Sneakers,43Nine West Women's Mariterase Leather PumpThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Men's Fashion Driving Loafers Casual Personality Simple Retro Lightweight Boat Moccasins (color Black, Size 9.5 D(M) US)Adidas ORIGINALS Men's Vs Set Sneakerfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.English Laundry Mens Anerley Fashion SneakerAdidas - VL Court 20 - DA9855 There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeClarks shoes 26128680 Trapell Apron DarkKEEN Women's CNX Mercer Lace II Running shoes.New Balance Men's CM1600 Classics Red with Black & Purple Running shoes 9 Men USTSIODFO Men's Sneakers Breathable Comfortable Youth Big Boys Sport Trail Running shoes (7058-Green-45) At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Ailj Snow Boots, Men's Warm Boots and Velvet shoes Winter Boots Warm Boots Cotton shoes Non-Slip Waterproof (2 colors) (color Brown, Size 43 EU 10 US 9 UK 26.5cm JP)Beanie shoes Men's Spring New Lazy Men's British shoes Trend Fashion Casual Cow Leather shoes Set Foot Driving Leisure Flat shoes Men (color Brown, Size 42)therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (DANIELE ALESSANDRINI Scarpa Francesina F354K1663506).HAPPYSHOP Mens Suede Leather Comfort Slip-on Driving shoes Loafers Leisure shoes BlackMen's Boots, High-Top Casual shoes Boots Fall Winter Outdoor Trekking Camping Martin Boots,B,40 However,WeiPoot Women's Frosted Solid Closed-toe Boots with Curves Style and Non-Slipping SoleGeox Sneakers U84R3C 0CLME CF47J I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Veeko A2V7203B Men's Closed Toe Dress Sandals Fisherman Huaraches Hook and Loop Casual Slip-on shoes, Tan, Black

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