The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Sperry Top-Sider Men's Bahama Lug Chukka Black Casual shoes 12 Men USThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Palladium Men's Pampa Hi VL BootsFila Men's Bubbles Zip Black White FilaRed Nike Men's Air Relentless 5 MSL, Black Total Crimson-MTLC Cool Grey-WhiteED Ellen DeGeneres Womens Antonagenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Florsheim Men's Lexington Wingtip Oxford,Black,11 D USand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. New Men's shoes Youth Casual shoes Flow Cover Foot Single shoes Men's shoes Leather shoes Round Head Cover Leather shoes Male Korean Version of Tassel shoes (color Black, Size 44)Florsheim Mens Calipa Leather Lace Up Dress OxfordsWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Rocky Men's Alpha Force Six Inch Work BootAdidas ORIGINALS Deerupt Runner YellowPewter Miz Mooz Women's Aster SandalAltra Lone Peak 3.0 Mid Neoshell Trail Running shoes - Women's I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Men's Perforated Breathable Penny Loafers Summer Genuine Leather Business Dress Wedding Casual shoes Anti-Slip Flat Slip-on (color Black Perforated, Size 10 D(M) US)), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Men's Classic Business Casual shoes Genuine Leather Comfortable Soft Dress Wedding Loafers Anti-Slip Flat Lace Up shoes (color Brown, Size 9.5 D(M) US)), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Adidas Originals Men's Swift Run shoesand Dig dog bone Men's Boots Casual Classic Workwear Trend Low Top Comfortable Big Size Formal shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Lacoste Mens Carnaby Ca Casual Fashion Sneakers,Black White,11Rockport Womens Brynn T-Strap Pumpduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Hush Puppies Women's Kendra Alternative OxfordWhite Jeffrey Campbell Brea Hair Kitten Heels shoes Womens FootwearLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? YYIN Boots Men's Tooling shoes High Help Martin Boots Plus Velvet Thicken Desert Boots Non-Slip Wear Walking Boots Comfortable Motorcycle Boots Work Safety BootsKult Kanvas Daft Punk Album Cuver Decal Vinyl Wall Stcker (AL1) XL 120cm x 166cmAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Taos Footwear Women's New Wave SandalFrench Sole FS NY Womens Nisim Flat Sandal.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Clarks Edgewood Mix Mens Oxfords2.75 Inches Taller Men's Calfskin Leather Business Slip On Loafers shoes UBCA-BOODUN Mens Ultralight Self-Locking Racing Sneakers shoes Ciclismo Athletic MTB shoesBase London Loafers-shoes Mens Leather blueeThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Funtasma Mens CAPTAIN-115 Knee High BootBONGZUO Crocodile Pattern Oxford shoes, Pointed shoes European Version Leather shoes Men Leather shoes Top Layer Leather Formal Wear New Business shoes Black, YMCW090802factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.City Classified Women's Comfy Padded Insole Slip On Round Toe Wedge Pump (8 B(M) US, Black Nbpu)Nike Men's Air Max 270 Futura shoes White purple Grey There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeOliver Women's 3'' Composite Toe Slip Resistant Waterproof Work SneakersECCO Womens Vibration 1.0 Lace Oxford.Charles David Women's Celeste Ankle BootTNF GTD Trail shoes Men's bluee Green 45.5 At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Men Chelsea Boots Martin Boots Round Toe Bullock Carved Ankel Boots Casual Leather shoes Dress shoes EU Size 38-43Adidas Originals ZX Flux Weave Mens Trainers Sneakers shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Badgley Mischka Womens Pascale Heeled Sandal).2 color US Size 5-12 New Leather Mens Lace Up Formal Dress Wingtip Oxford shoesCharles David Womens Cristalyn Pump However,Dr. Martens Mens Torriano Brando OxfordNike Men's Air Trainer 180, Binary bluee White-Glacier Grey I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Camper Women's Balloon Cross Sandal

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