The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Kodiak Women's bluee Girls 6-Inch CSA Safety shoesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Men's Driving Loafer Casual Refreshing OX Leather shoes with Soft Soles Non-Slip Boat Moccasins (color Darkbrown, Size 9.5 D(M) US)2019 Mens Oxfords shoes, Men's Casual Simple Classic Round Toe Lace-up Outsole Height Formal shoes Fashion Oxford Jordan Mens Flight Legend Hight Top Lace Up Basketball shoesPUMA Mens Red Bull Racing Evo Cat Sneakergenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Kickers Tovni Lacer Mens Leather Matt shoesand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Kenneth Cole New York Womens Justin Engineer BootASICS Men's GT 1000 2 Running shoes GreyWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Man Driving Loafer Casual Leather Soft Sole Solid color Business Bean shoes Small Size36 Boat MoccasinsRevitalign Women's Chameleon Flip FlopLacoste Men's Keston LMS L ve Sneakershoes Men Men's Fashion Leisure shoes Business Oxford Formal Business shoes Genuine Leather Round Toe Lace Up (color Black, Size 45 UE) I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. 5.11-12018 Men's A.T.A.C. 6 Side-Zip Boot), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Sperry Mens SEA Kite Sport MOC Boat shoes), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Step n Style Mens Juttis Rajasthani Mojadi Kolhapuri shoes Wedding shoes Formal Jutiand Franco Sarto Women's L-Arlette Riding Boot). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Conver Chuck Taylor All Star Specialty Leather,Blk,3 MEagsouni Men's Loafers Driving Boat shoes Slip On Casual Moccasins Penny Suede Leather Flats Slippers Dress shoes Fashion Greyduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Nomad Women's Twinkle Flip FlopDiesel Men's Eastcop Gotcha shoes Leather Fashion Sneakers Y00985 P0371 T2051 Silver MinkLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Releson Men's Casual shoes Non-Slip Rubber Soles Breathable Mesh Sports Outdoor Black Basketball shoesCotswold Womens Barrington Slip on Loafer shoes Navy Size UK 6.5 EU 40And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Adidas Men's Courtvantage Mid Mid-Top Canvas Fashion SneakerTeva Men's Jetter Sandal Brown.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).CALTO Men's Invisible Height Increasing Elevator shoes - Black Premium Leather Slip-on Dress Loafters - T1535-3 Inches TallerNike Men's Marxman Casual shoes Men Boots Tactical Military Boots Combat Breathable Lightweight Desert BootsGeox Women's D SAND.SFINGE A Flat SandalsThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Ashley A Fashion colorful Causal Slip on Loafers Moccasin Walking Driving Indoor Flat shoes for WomenMens Backpacking Boots Winter Warm Men Leather Boots Motorcycle Boots Big Size 39-48 Man Genuine Leather shoes with Fur Liningfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.ROYAL ALDO Men's Comfortable Sandals, Leather Straps with Two Buckles, Arch Support FootwearSkechers Work Greetah -77183 Men's Oxford There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeJomos Mens M.Low shoes Black Wide HECCO Mens Men's Luca Slip on Loafer Slip-On Loafer.ASICS Road Hawk FF 2 Women's Running shoesCALDEN - K282013-2.6 Inches Taller - Size 9 D US - Height Increasing Elevator shoes (Black Leather Slip-on Dress shoes) At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, 2 color US Size 5-12 New Genuine Leather Mens Lace Up Formal Dress Oxford shoesHUDSON LONDON Breslin Cognac Mens Chelsea Boottherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Men's Leisure Driving Loafers Round Toe Oxfords Casual Flat Penny shoes Leather Upper Slip On Walking Lightweight Boat shoes (color Darkbrown, Size 10.5 D(M) US)).Yiyu Men's Leather shoes Spring Business Dress shoes Casual shoes Middle-Aged Father's shoes Round Head Low to Help Comfortable and BreathablePuma Men's Evospeed 1.4 Sf Ankle-High Fashion Sneaker However,Steve Madden Women's Ecntrcv SneakersWeiPoot Women's Soft Material Solid Closed-toe Boots with Curves Style and Non-Slipping Sole I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Caprice Women's Flora Low-Top Sneakers

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