The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Sperry Men's, Cutter Slip on shoesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Nomad Women's Twinkle Flip FlopG.H. Bass & Co. Mens Scott Chukka Boot Charm Foot Fashion Womens Platform High Heel Chukka Boots Western Boots BlackGONGFF Mid Heel Women's Boots Pointed Side Zipper Rivet High Tube Women's Bootsgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Men's Loafer Formal Square Bicycle Toe Oxford Dress shoes (color Black, Size 12 M US)and molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Men's Sports shoes, Fashion Leather Boots High-top Casual shoes + Rubber Sole Running shoes Outdoor Hiking shoes YAN (color A, Size 43)Waterproof Non-Slip Sandals and Slippers Sandals Men's Beach Casual Men's shoes (color Black, Size 42)We integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Skechers Sport Men's Synergy Instant Reaction OxfordFairytale shoes House Gallery Wrapped Canvas Art (12in. x 12in.)Vince Camuto Women's Edora Fashion SandalsRoper Western Boots Womens Libbie Pull On Brown 09-021-1557-2059 BR I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Kult Kanvas Daft Punk Album Cuver Decal Vinyl Wall Stcker (AL1) XL 120cm x 166cm), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Flat Cylinder Head Low Wax Play Female Boots), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Men's Fashion Driving Loafers Casual Simple Low Top Slip On Pure color Flexible Boat Moccasins shoes (color Black, Size 9 D(M) US)and Deltaplus Men's Strategy Low Leather Work Safety shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Leecabe Newest Pole Dancing shoes 20CM High Heel Platform Boots Open Toe Fringes Pole Dancing BootRocky TMC Postal-Approved Women's Chukka Duty Bootduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Womens Ladies Mid Low High Heel Strappy Diamante Party Wedding Prom Sandals shoes SizeMen's Oxford Style Leader 2 Bicycle Loafers LoafersLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Lorie & Knight Japanese Harajuku Women Black Leather Buckle Straps Lace Up Gothic Punk Cosplay Platform High BootsAnMengXinLing Fashion Ankle Boots Women Studded Buckle Low Block Heel Rubber Sole Motorcycle Booties Patent Leather Round ToeAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Dig dog bone Men's Moccasins Leather Hollywood Driving Style LoaferCotswold Womens Barrington Slip on Loafer shoes Pewter Size UK 6.5 EU 40.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Base London Oxfords-shoes Mens Leather BlackROBERTO DELLA CROCE Loafers-shoes Mens Leather bluee HANBINGPO high Heels shoes Woman Leopard Patent Pointed Toe Women's shoes 12cm Thin Heels,red Floral 12cm,9SHOE FLY LONDON WHITE YADU732FLY P500732006The costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Kenneth Cole New York Womens Villa Open Toe Casual Gladiator SandalsVolatile Women's Cookies N Cream Dark Brown Sandalfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Hush Puppies Mens Runner Moccasin Lace Up shoes Black Size UK 10 EU 45Funtasma F'TASMAW Womens MAIDEN-8820 PWPU Boots There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeVans' Men's Chapman Mid Lace Up SneakerCindy Says Women's Reward Thong Sandal.Phil Betty Mens Booties Snake Sequin Zipper Breathable Non-Slip Comfortable Casual shoesT-JULY Women Snow Boots Wool Blend Patchwork Warm Winter Boots Girls Mid Calf Botas Sneaker Boots Big Size At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, BONGZUO Handcrafted Leather Oxford shoes, Business Men Formalwear England Brock Carved Men shoes Leather Handmade shoes, YMCDBD832-010Ben Sherman Men's Conall Lo Fashion Sneakertherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (gold Glitter Melissa Womens Campana Crochet AD Ballet Flat).XHD- Classic shoes Men's Classico Comfredable Driving Loafer Flat Heel Solid color Slip on Soft Moccasins shoesNew Balance Men's 373 V1 Athletic shoes Black However,Twisted X Boots Women's WDM0050 Boat shoesXujw-shoes 2019 Mens Boots Men's Ankle Work Boots, Casual Classic Pure color Winter Faux Fleece Inside High Top Boot(Conventional Optional) I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Camel T-JULY Women's Autumn Over-The-Knee Boots High Heel Pointed Toe Sexy Ladies shoes Black Thigh High Boots

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