The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Marc O'Polo Women's Sneaker 70713913501114 TrainersThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,XUERUI Ms High Heels Stilettos Sandals Pointed Single shoes Suede Wedding Graduation Jobs Etiquette Fashion Sexy Beautiful 10cm Heel (Size EU39 UK6 CN39)Nike W Air Huarache Run Se Womens 859429-801 Superga Mens 2095 COTU Fashion Sneakers Model 2095COTU FULLBLACKT-JULY Fashion Women Genuine Leather Flat Loafers Casual Flower Moccasins Ladies shoesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Women Fashion Buckle Strap Casual Back Strap Square Heel shoes Summer Super High Heels Soft Leather Sandalsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Tortor 1bacha Unisex Teenager Adult Fashion Leather Zipper Combat BootsJordan Nike Men's NIKE LEGEND TR TRAINING SHOES 8.5 Men US (BLACK WHITE UNIVERSITY blueE)We integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Clarks Men's TRIKEN Run LT GreyFly London Women's Yaz Wedge PumpEnzo Romeo SPK05 Men's Vintage Satin Silky Floral Print Embroidery Loafers Slip On shoes Classic Tuxedo Dress shoesFioni Women's Lia Strappy Heel I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Rockport Women's Faye Ballet Flat), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. 2.36 inches Taller Men's Elevator Sneakers Cow Leather Casual Sports Running shoes), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Nine Seven Women's Pointed Toe Mesh D'Orsay Sandal with Bowand Men's Formal shoes Spring Casual Comfort Oxfords Walking shoes Black Brown Wedding Leather shoes (color Brown, Size 38)). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, LFL by Lust for Life Women's GuruWomen's Boots Leather Winter Ankle Boots High-top Casual shoes Lace Up Martin Boots Round Head Comfortable Casual Boots (color B, Size 37)during experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). XUJW-Sandals, Men's Genuine Leather Beach Slippers Casual Non-Slip Soft Flat Sandals shoesZee Alexis Monica Woven Ankle Booties BlackLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? INMONARCH Mens Silver Polyester Wedding shoes Brown Paisley MJ010681Nike Men's Zoom Shift Nylon Basketball shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Vagabond Women's MYA Leather Slip On Mid Heel shoes RedMNX15 Women's Elevator shoes Height Increase 2.4 Mango bluee Wedge Sneakers High Heel Sneakers.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Women's shoes, Fashion Super High-Heeled Knee Stretch Boots, Leather Winter Boots Stiletto Heel Knee High Boots Black (color Black, Size 38)Think Womens Camilla 88424 Leather Sandals XIANG GUAN Men's Breathable running shoesGnarly Tees Men's Piano SneakersThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: ECCO Womens Incise Tailored OxfordMisu Women's Peep Toe Sandals Latin Salsa Tango Practice Ballroom Dance shoes with 3.0 Heel,Silver Satin and Glitter,13.0 B(M) USfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Nine Seven Genuine Leather Women's Pointed Toe Stiletto Heel Rivets Handmade Ankle BootieWomen Sandals Flip Flop High Heel Transparent Waterproof Platform Crystal Peep Toe Shiny shoes Stilettos Pumps Ankle Strap Heel Wedding Party 15Cm There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeFOREVER VOGUE Women's High Chunky Block Heel Sandals Ankle Strap Pointed Toe Pump shoesWomen's High Heels Sandals Kaitzen Peep Toe Fashion Zipper Shiny Ankle Platform Pump Court shoes 11Cm Evening Party.Fila Mens Original Fitness Leather Padded Insole Running, Cross Training shoesLucky Brand Womens Kierlo Open Toe Casual Platform Sandals, Linen, Size 6.0 At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, DSFGHE Men's Running shoes Low Waist Gymnastics Training Sneakers Camouflage Jungle Off-Road Hiking shoesMeet- fashion Patchwork Leather Suede Ankle Boots Sexy Pointed Toe Female shoes Woman Slip On Footweartherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (INC International Concepts Womens garoldd Leather Open Toe, Black, Size 8.0).Women's shoes Tulle Comfort Sandals Walking shoes Stiletto Heel Pointed Heel Wedding Party & Evening Dress Formal Business Work Wedding (color A, Size 36)A2 By Aerosoles In Between Women US 6 Nude Flats However,Z.L.F shoes Men's Business Oxford Casual Classic Retro color Contrast Comfortable Outdoors Formal shoes Leather shoesMen's Basketball shoes,Spring Fall,Outdoor Athletic shoes, High-Top Sneakers,Comfort Running shoes, Hiking shoes Casual Walking shoes (color C, Size 43) I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Wolverine Mens W17501 Fire and Safety shoes

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