The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Comfortabel Mens Sandalen, black, 620190-1The Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,LIVEINU Men's Leather Casual Slip On Loafers Boat Moccasins shoesOTAH Aspen Men's Waterproof Hiking Mid-Cut Camel Black shoes Runcati Womens Cut Out Ankle Boots Peep Toe Sandals Chunky Block Heel Strappy Platform High Zipper BootiesDexter The 9 Slide Sole - Shortest Slide 2 Brown Microfiber XLarge, Brown A, X-Large (Men's 13-15)generating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Geox Womens Annytah 2 Leather Bit Loafer Loafer Flatand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Gabor Felicity Women's Mule Wedge SandalsMen's High Rise Walking Boots,Hiking shoes,Northwest Territory,Breathable, Soft, Comfortable,GreenWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

Franco Sarto Womens Raina Ankle Boot

I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,He-yanjing Women's Hiking shoes, 2018 Autumn and Winter The Couple Hiking shoes Men'sPUMA Mens St Activate SneakerMizuno Dominant IC Adult Men's Low Cut Metal Baseball Cleats - Black & WhiteReebok Women's Crossfit Sprint TR Training shoes I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. MUMUWU xford shoes for Men Formal shoes OX Leather Soft Round Toe with Low Top (color Brown, Size 9.5 D(M) US)), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. XHD- Classic shoes Men's Personality Oxford Casual Classic Comfortable Engraved Low-top Lace Brogue shoes (color Brown, Size 9.5 M US)), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, ECCO Womens Shape 55 Plateau Mary Jane Pumpand Sam Edelman Womens Jennifer Combat Boot). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Rocky Moose Men's Winter Boots 3M Thinsulate Waterproof with Membrane Side Zipper Temperature Rating -32°C OhioFDF SHOES Oxfords-shoes Mens Suede Beigeduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). DSFGHE Men Martin Boots Chukka Casual Non-Slip Boots Plus Velvet Snow Boots Work Boots Motorcycle Lace-up shoesShellys London Mens Vraspir-91 Low Top Lace Up Fashion SneakersLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? HUMTTO Mens Outdoor Non-Slip High-Top Warm Plus Velvet Hiking Boots GR10ACE SHOCK Adult Men's Cos-Play Knee-high Boot Riding Boots BlackAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Giorgio Brutini Men's Royce 25016 OxfordUBCA-ONEMIX Unisex Cushion Outdoor Sport Music Ritmo Deportivas Running shoes.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).DILN UNbox Men's Casual Velcro Non-Slip Soles Toe 2-Strap Leather Slides SandalStacy Adams Mens Shaw Moc Toe Bit Slip-on Loafer Men's shoes 2018 Summer Hollow-Out Breathable Leather shoes Invisible Height Increase shoes Brown, Black, WhiteSoda Sincere Women's Low Ankle Heel Bootie with Elastic Cross StrapsThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Funtasma by Pleaser Men's Halloween Clown-02Classique Mens Western Cowboy Riding Ankle Boots Texas Line Dancing Buckle Slip On Black 12factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.PAEZ Men's FOLKIES Reggae Canvas AlpargatasMen Brogue Lace up Oxford shoes Pointed-Toe Uniform Dress Fashion shoes Oxford Derby shoes Work Office Wedding shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeFerro Aldo Arthur MFA139001D Mens Wingtip Two Tone Oxford Black and White Spectator Dress shoes - Brown, Size 9.5DSFGHE Mens Summer Official Wedding Black Lace-up shoes Low-top Breathable Hole Flats for Men.XINBONG Men's Dress shoes Comfortable Casual Business Oxford shoesConverse Unisex Chuck Taylor Pro Ox Casual shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Jessica Simpson Womens Lessy Fabric Pointed Toe Over Knee, Grey, Size 7.0MILANAO Mens Summer Business Casual shoes Leather Gentleman Mesh Lace Up and Low Top shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (ECCO shoes Women's Soft 7 Lace Fashion Sneakers).CAPE ROBBIN Women's Oxford Wingtip Espadrille Lace-Up Flatform CreeperBadgley Mischka Womens Lyla Pump However,Fresh Box Boxfreshoes Mens Leather Matt TrainersMen's Blade Sneakers Mesh Breathable Fashion Sports Casual Walking Running shoes I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Converse Men's All Star Chuck CT High Street High Black Road Trip bluee White 152602F

Wander G Men's Lightweight Breathable Mesh Street Sport Walking shoes Casual Sneakers for Sports Gym Walking Hiking shoes Walking Men Outdoor Climbing Sport Hunting Mountain Boots

KTOL Casual Beach Men's Sandal, Summer Non-Slip Sport Sandals Arched Support PU Leather Hollow