The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Dwarves Handmade Retro Leather Lace Up Ankle Boots for Women Brown BlackThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Cole Haan Air Heath Wedge Sandal Women's sz 9Caterpillar Men's Blackbriar Mid Cut Steel Toe Boot Johnston & Murphy Men's Bartlett Moc Lace-up OxfordsAsics Women's Gel-Pursue 3 Ankle-High Running shoesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, LOLLIPOPS Women's Yasmin 22260 Shoulder Bagand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. U.S. Polo - GALAN4129S8_C1 red 45Sofft - Womens - FelisaWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Badgley Mischka Womens Jodie PumpMNX15 Women's Elevator shoes Height Increase 2.4 Mango bluee Wedge Sneakers High Heel SneakersWalking Cradles Women's Surge Pump Brown Crocodile Size 5 MReal Spark Men's British Style Suede Leather Diving Car Flats Casual Slip-on Penny Loafers Boat shoes I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. MNX15 Women's Elevator shoes Height Increase 2.7 Martin Navy), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Adidas X 15.1 SG Mens Soccer Boots Cleats), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Women's Booties, Pointed Low-Heel Flat Ladies Fall Winter Leather Stripe Martin Boots Green Velvet, Brown Velvet (color A, Size 35)and Lady Couture Dressy Mid Heel Wedding Mother of Bride Party Cocktail Evening Sling Back Closed Toe Women's shoes Ester). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Mens Sandals, Men's Casual Thong Flip Flops shoes Genuine Leather Beach Slippers Non-Slip Soft Flat Sandals,Perfect for The Beach or Any Outdoor Scene. (color Black, Size 6.5MUS)Sports shoes Men's Breathable Flying Woven Board shoes Autumn Outdoor Casual Fashion Students Cotton shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). INMONARCH Mens Silver Polyester Wedding shoes Brown Paisley MJ010681Men's Sports shoes, Fashion Leather Deck shoes Low-top Sneakers Outdoor Lace Up Hiking shoes Fitness & Cross Training shoes YAN (color C, Size 39)Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Aldo Mens Caddo Slip-On LoaferSlydes - SS18 Wahiki Floral Men's Slider Sandals RRP 39And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Kaitzen Women's Sandals Peep Toe High Heels Flowers Strappy Platform Stiletto Court shoes Boots Fashion Pump Evening PartyFOREVER VOGUE Women's Open Toe Ankle Strap Rhinestone Platform High Chunky Block Heel Sandal.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Women's High Heels Sandals Kaitzen Flowers Belt Buckle Fashion Shiny Ankle Platform Pump Court shoes Evening PartyRevelstoke Mens Overland Sherpa Winter Snow Boots Gnarly Tees Men's Drumming shoes High TopAdidas Men's Nizza Hi Classic 78, Sunshine Carbon WHITEVAPThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Menorca Authentic Menorcan Sandals, Avarcas Menorquinas, Big Sizes, Biege Sole, Avarcas Menorquínas Abarcas, Albarcas.Betsey Johnson Womens Traci Wedge Sandalfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Women's Crystal Diamante Evening Wedding Party Prom Bridal Slip-On Wedge Heel Sandals shoesAdidas - Eezay Flip Flop - F35029 There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeSam Edelman Womens Haide PumpWomen's shoes PU Spring Summer Pointed shoes Heels National Style Stiletto Heel Wedding Party & Evening Dress Formal Business Work (color B, Size 34).U-lite Mens Ankle Chukka Boots, Four Eyes Lace Up Oxford Bred Booties for Men.Converse Unisex shoes All Star Hi Top Pink Fashion Sneakers At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Studio Pollini Women's The Khoa Fashion SneakerMen's Boots, Leather Fall Winter Boots High-Top Boot Martin Boots British High Outdoor Retro Boots Large Size Comfortable Running Boot Walking Boot Hiking Boot XUE (color A, Size 45)therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Men's Leather Large Size Combat Boots 36-48 Snow Boots).T-JULY Fashion Summer Gladiator Sandals Wedges High Heels Genuine Leather Lace-up Women Dress Party Dress SandalsAhico Mens Running shoes Womens Fashion Casual Sneakers Breathable Mesh Slip on Blade Athletic Tennis Sports shoes for Men Grey However,GFP 2018 Men's Leather shoes, Flat shoes Formal Business Work Comfy Moccasins,Classic Lace up Men's Casual shoesNike Men's Free 4.0 Running shoes I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Men's Leather Sleeves Business Casual shoes Dad shoes Peas shoes (color White Punch, Size 42)

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