The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. HUAN LED shoes LED Mens Casual shoes Womens High-Top Sneakers Ghost Step Dance shoes Couples shoesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Sperry Womens Syren Gulf BootsECCO Womens Shape 55 Plateau Mary Jane Pump Hiking shoes, Outdoor Lightweight Waterproof Trekking Waterproof Water shoes Climbing Anti-SlipperyESmart Joy & Mario Men's Leather Alpargatas Slip Loafers shoes Flats 61562M (White, Black in Size 8-13) (8 D(M) US, White)generating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Franklin & Freeman Men's Robinson Wingtip Medallion Oxfordand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Diesel Men's Claw Action S-actwyngs SneakerDickies Men's Dickies Blaster 6 CSA Work BootWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Can't be satisfied Mens shoes Casual Slip On Formal shoes Men Loafers Moccasins Genuine Leather Driving shoesClarks Women's Acina Chester Strappy WedgeSoftMoc B&B Men's Baldwin Lace Up Ankle BootFDF SHOES Oxfords-shoes Mens Leather White I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Dailyshoes Unisex Flat Memory Foam Cushioned Insole Casual Slip-On Loafers Sneakers shoes), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Call It Spring Men's Eteilla Ankle Bootie), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Converse Men's Chuck Taylor All Star Core Ox Charcoal Sneaker Men's 7.5 (12 D(M) US, Charcoal)and Adrianna Papell Womens Anette Platform Dress Sandal). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, SoftMoc Men's Doyle Lined Premium MoccasinICEGREY Men's Leather Fashion Slipper Casual Slip On Loafers shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Softspots Women's Venus Lite Black Size 6 WMen's Tooling Boots Plus VelvetKeep Warm Fall Winter Leather shoes Non Slip Shock Absorption Lace-up Martin Booties (color Black, Size 44)Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Z.L.F Oxford shoes for Men Driving Penny Loafers Slip-on Embroidery Decor Genuine Leather Boat Moccasins Rubber Sole Classic Retro shoesHUAN shoes Mens Casual shoes Fashion Sneakers Deck Boat shoes Canvas shoes Outdoor Running shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Sperry Mens Seamount Low SneakerMens Sandals, Men's shoes Leather Beach Flip Flops Slippers Non-Slip Soft Flat Casual Backless Sandals (color Brown, Size 7.5MUS).

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Ferro Aldo Arthur MFA139001D Mens Wingtip Two Tone Oxford Black and White Spectator Dress shoes - Brown, Size 9.5DSFGHE Leather shoes Men Formal Wedding Suit Leather Black Booties Adults' Vintage Business Chelsea Boots Office Work Non-Slip Ankle Boot Fit Men's Adidas Stan Smith WC Men's shoesSanita Izabella' Professional Clogs in bluee (Art 457006)The costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Merrell Women's Bare Access ARC 4 Hiking shoesGiles Jones Oxford shoes for Men - Soft Sole Round Toe Lace Up Breathable Dress shoes Blackfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.DDTX Safety Work shoes Unisex S2 Composite Toe SRC Anti-Slip Anti-Static On Kitchen for Chef Black 6-13 USA1 FASHION GOODS Vintage Tan Hunter Leather Shoulder Cross Body Sling Bag Holster Flight Pouch Bern There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeNew Balance Visaro 2.0 Control FG Football Boots - Typhoon - US11.5 Black orangeCorso Como Women's Dynamite Boot.Alpine Swiss Mens Beau Suede Lace Up Dress OxfordsBurnetie Men's Light Brown Solid Plaid Ox Vintage Sneaker At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Men's Tooling Boots Fall Winter New Martin Boots Outdoor Desert Boots High-top Chelsea Boots Hiking shoes (color A, Size 49)Converse Mens CT All Star x Nike Flyknittherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Vans Unisex Old Skool (Mono Bumper) Dress bluees True White).Z.L.F shoes Men's Oxfords Flat Heel Lace Up Graceful Business Modern Leisure shoes Leather shoesHAWEEL Casual Sports shoes Simple and Fashionable Wild Casual shoes for Men However,Women's Mid-Boots with High Heel Women's Boots Pointed Sexy Tube Women's Boots (color Black, Size 36)CAT Footwear Men's Transform Boot I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Men's Running Lightweight Breathable Casual Sports shoes Fashion Sneakers Walking shoes Cotton shoes Warm Fly Woven Stretch Socks shoes

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