The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Puma Men's States Mid X Swash Relic Leather Ankle-High Fashion SneakerThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Converse Unisex Chuck Taylor All Star Pro Ox White Red Insignia Basketball shoes 8 Men US 10 Women USSkechers Mens Go Train - Endurance Walking shoes Demonia Men's V-cre573 Bvl Ankle BootieInsun Men's Genuine Leather Boot shoesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Puma Hussein Chalayan Allvar Lo Mens Leather sneakers shoes - Brownand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Adidas Performance Mens Infiltrate Basketball shoes - WhiteWLJSLLZYQ Fall Men's Breathable shoes Low top Sneakers Sport shoes Canvas shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,LL Man Driving Loafer Casual Leather Soft Sole Solid color Business Bean shoes Boat Moccasins Dress shoesConverse Chuck Taylor All Star Ox Optical White(Size 5 US Men's)JIA JIA 20522 Women's Satin Sandals Flared Heel Latin Salsa Performance Dance shoesBartus Boys Leather Orthopedic Support shoes Sandals (025 Dricend) Made in Poland bluee I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Fleet & Foster Mens Luxor Lace Up shoes Brown Size UK 12 EU 46), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. KELME America Indoor Football Futsal Trainers Mens Lemon Royal Soccer Sneakers), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, ZIXUAP Summer Sports shoes Men's Fashion Wild color Burlap Breathable shoes Outdoor Non-Slip Wear-Resistant Casual shoes Whiteand Frances Valentine Womens Paulette Mule). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Converse Chuck Taylor HI Men's shoes White 132169cMiz Mooz Womens Mardi Sandalduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Arcopedico Womens Lolita Textile shoesJulitia Casual shoes for Men Breathable Mesh Soft Comfortable WalkingLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Winter Men's Leather Snow Boots, Warm Cotton shoes Boots Middle-Aged Father shoes,Brown,44VOEN Mens Casual shoes Blade Outdoor Walking Sneakers Mesh Breathable Fashion TrainersAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Very Volatile Women's Round-Up Ankle BootSteve Madden Men's Wakken Dress shoes.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Palladium Women's Baggy Canvas BootECCO shoes Women's Shape M 35 Short Fashion Boots Jessica Simpson Women's Mandayss Ballet FlatPhil Betty Mens Hiking Boots Waterproof Breathable Non-Slip Plus Velvet Warm Snow BootsThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Stacy Adams Men's Peyton OxfordMen's Leather shoes Fall Winter Business Formal shoes Plus Velvet Keep Warm shoes Casual Fashion Wedding shoes,B,42factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Nunn Bush Mens Ozark OxfordGiles Jones Combat Boots for Men Winter Leather Wear Resistant Durable Motorcycle Boots There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeGeox Women's D New LISE D Ankle BootsKaty Perry Womens The Raina Ankle Boot.Ruosh Men's Leather Dance shoesMen's Mesh shoes, Blade Sneakers Autumn Winter Running shoes Low-top Sports shoes Lace Up Casual shoes Training shoes Black Brown Red White YAN (color Brown, Size 40) At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, PUMA Men's Evopower Vigor 4 Graphic ITNike NIKE5 Bomba PRO (Mens)therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (PUMA Mens Puma One 2 Il LTH Fg Soccer shoes).Adidas Men's Explosive Flash Basketball shoesQIDI Martin Short Men's shoes High Help Leisure Keep Warm Outdoor Movement Boots (color T-1, Size US10.5 EU42 UK8.5) However,AOOAR Women's Criss Cross Ankle Strap Spike Heels Party Pumps with PlatformO'Neill Phluff Daddy Suede Sandle Flip Flop Men's I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Men's Driving shoes Spring Fall Leather shoes,Comfort Lace up shoes, Fashionable Loafers & Slip-ONS,Classic Casual Flats, Lazy shoes

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