The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Robert Wayne Mens Wisconsin Round Toe Casual Chukka BootsThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Bergort Hiking shoes Men Women Boots Outdoor Sports SneakersDSFGHE Men's Hiking shoes Lightweight Breathable Outdoor Walking shoes Waterproof Non-Slip Training Gymnastics Training Sneakers Ivanka Trump Womens Rahela Leather Open Toe BootiesAdidas Men's Pro Spark 2018 Lowgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, KOZI Men Leather Sandal NEW DIEGO-07 with Adjustable Strappy Detailsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Nunn Bush Men Lancaster Chukka Boot, Brown, 9T&B Indoor Soccer Cleats shoes Lightweight TF Football Boots Men Youth 32726-Lan-3.5US 21.9cmWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Very Volatile Women's Round-Up Ankle BootSPLNWTFHCNWPCB Fashion shoes Simple shoes wear Outdoor Tourism Mens Sports shoesSkechers Womens Hi-lite - Glitter Star SneakerBravo VANGELO Men's Tuxedo shoes Tux-1 Wrinkle Free Dress shoes Formal Oxford I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Sperry Womens Seaport Tahoe Ankle Boot), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Vans Unisex Classic Slip-On Metallic Sneakers), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, ONCEFIRST Men's Leather High Top Trekking shoes Waterproof Sneakersand Gabor Womens Sound 2 Nubuck Boots). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, ZLQ Men's PU Leather Oxfords Low Top Flat Sole Loafers Formal shoes2018 New Men’s Sports shoes Spring Fall Casual Sneakers Durable Non Slip Running shoes Hiking Athletic shoes (color B, Size 38)during experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Winter Men's Leather Snow Boots, Warm Cotton shoes Boots Middle-Aged Father shoes,Brown,44L'Artiste by Spring Step Women's Marvel SandalsLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? MUMUWU xford shoes for Men Formal shoes OX Leather Soft Round Toe with Low Top (color Black, Size 8.5 D(M) US) Creative Tree and Wolf Wall Stickers Living Room Home Decor Stickers, 69 x 114 cmAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?SheSole Women's Evening Rhinestone Sandals Silver US 10CJC shoes Men's Casual Loafers Flat Moccasins Walking Driving Lightweight Formal Business Work Comfy (color D, Size EU41 UK7.5-8).

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Geox Women's D New LISE D Ankle BootsHUAN Mens Casual shoes Lace-up Flat Loafers Outdoor Exercise Sneakers Running shoes Spring Viking Footwear Men's Bekina Steplitex Safety Steel Toe and Plate, Green Construction BootROF Coco-01 Women's Vegan D'orsay Mary Jane T-strap Mid Heel Dress Platform Pumps shoesThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Uniform shoes shoes Men's Business Oxford Casual Contracted New Seiko British Style Vintage Formal shoes Leather shoesAdidas Women's purebounce+ Street Athletic shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Nike Jr MercurialX Victory 6 DF IC Mens Soccer-shoes 903599Nika Total 90 Shoot III IC (White orange) There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placePUMA Mens Puma One 2 Il LTH Fg Soccer shoesSkechers Womens Meridian Textile Synthetic Trainers.Teva Men's Benson Thong Flip-Flop BrownBOLUOYI 2019 High Heels for Women Fashion Women’s Snake Sexy Buckle Fish Mouth shoes Non-Slip High Heel Sandals Sandals Womens Heel Wedge At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, ECCO shoes Women's Shape Wedge Plateau Fashion SandalsChaco Women's Zvolv 2 Sport Sandaltherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Snowman Lee Men's Leather Driving Loafers Dress Casual Loafers Classic Two-Eye Boat shoes).Another Summer The Men's Casual shoes,11.5 D(M) US,WhiteATIKA AT-M111-KLG_Men 9 D(M) Men's Sport Sandals Maya Trail Outdoor Water shoes M111 (True to Size) However,LABO Men's Snow Boots Waterproof Insulated Lace UP 2 Style by CITISHOESNYC (9, BLACK103)HUAN Men's shoes Stretch Satin Tulle Spring Fall Comfort Athletic shoes Running shoes Split Joint for Athletic Casual Outdoor Black Red I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Zhuanglin Men's Mesh Slip On Water shoes Casual Walking shoes

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