The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. OLGA RUBINI Boots Womens Leather BlackThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,HUMTTO Mens Outdoor Non-Slip High-Top Warm Plus Velvet Hiking Boots KH9.5WLJSLLZYQ Summer Men's shoes Casual shoes Sport shoes All-Purpose shoes FREE SOLDIER Outdoor Men's Quick Drying Lightweight Sport Hiking Water shoesJordan Nike Kid's Eclipse Holiday Bg Basketball shoesgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Skechers Performance Men's Go Walk 3 Solar Walking shoesand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Men Boots Leather Mid-Calf Wear-Resistant Male Military Boots Super Large SizeSnowman Lee Men's Premium Genuine Leather Fashion Slipper Casual Slip On Loafers shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Dexter Men's Max Bowling shoes (Right Handed Only)Walking Cradles Womens Panama Flat SandalPhil Betty Mens Chelsea Boots Pull-On Warm Non-Slip Waterproof Casual BootiesLeather Men's shoes Business Trend Crocodile Pattern Casual shoes Large Size shoes Men's Youth shoes, 45, 46 I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Men's Street Motorcycle Boots, Motorcycle Racing Boots shoes with Adjustable One-Buckle Closure System), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Z.L.F Oxford shoes for Men Driving Penny Moccasins Classic Suede Genuine Leather Soft Rubber Sole Loafers), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, XHD- Classic shoes Simple Men's Business PU Leather shoes Classic Slip-on Loafers Square Texture Outsole Oxfordsand Men's shoes Fitness & Cross Training shoes Mesh + Leather Athletic shoes Lace Up Sneakers Jogging Long-Distance Running Hiking Basketball shoes YAN (color Red, Size 44)). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, HAPPYSHOP(TM Men's Fashion shoes Cow Leather Driving shoes Bussines shoes Comfort Lace Up Penny Loafers BrownWander G Men's Lightweight Breathable Mesh Street Sport Walking shoes Casual Sneakers for Sports Gym Walkingduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Adidas Messi F10 Indoor bluee Red White ( G97725 )MET RXL Spring Mens Casual shoes Low Cut shoes UK air shoes Breathable shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Light Brown Maizun Women Men House Slippers Plush Non-Slip Cotton Lightweight Home shoes Washable Slide Indoor SlipperStep n Style Mens Punjabi Jutti Sherwani shoes Copper Cut Work Zari Khussa shoes Handmade Ethnic FootwearAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Phil Betty Mens Martin Boots Outdoor Non-Slip Wear-Resistant Lace Up Round-Toe BootiesKenneth Cole New York Mens Wize Sneaker Sneaker.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).YDN Women Chunky Heel T-Straps Sandals Platfrom Suede Open Toe Comfy shoesHANBINGPO 2019 Men Casual shoes 100% Genuine Leather Men Flats Loafers Luxury Soft Moccasins Breathable André Assous Womens Nigella Flat SandalRieker Women’s L6540 Hi-Top TrainersThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: ROF Women's Studded Quilted Leatherette Buckle Round Toe Motorcycle BootsOutdoor Warm Retro High-top Martin Boots Men's Wear Hiking shoes Women's Classic Lace Up Round Toe Martin Boots Teens Girls Warm Short Bootsfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Rockport Men's WALK360 Washable Oxford blueeberry Real Teal 9 MThe small cat Brand Men Sandals Genuine Leather Men Beach Roman Men Casual shoes Men Slippers Size 3848 There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeAALHM Boots Men's Tooling shoes High Help Martin Boots Plus Velvet Thicken DeseSioux - Marcel Palisander Softlammantik.Sport Sandals Men's Sandals Summer Outdoor Beach shoes Soft Open Toe Sandals Casual Youth Sports Slippers Retro Breathable Roman shoes (color Brown-B, Size 5.5UK 7.5US)Snowman Lee Premium Leather Business shoes for Men Breathable Casual Lace Up Working Footwear At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, PUMA disc Blaze reflectivePuma Future Trinomic Slipstream Mens Size 14 orange Sneakers shoes UK 13 EU 48.5NORTON'Camargue' Boots - 44 - Browntherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Men Breathable Running Sneakers 2017 Autumn New Flying Lightweight Fitness shoes).It's a big deal Men shoes Split Leather Men Loafers Moccasins Slip On Driving Men's Flats Loafers Male shoesConverse Unisex Chuck Taylor Pro Ox Casual shoes However,2019 New Mens Casual shoes Leather Lace-up shoes Comfort Breathable Driving shoes Sneakers Formal Business Work,A,38Men's shoes, Business Casual Flat shoes Driving shoes Loafers & Slip-Ons Work shoes Occupation, Offic White Red bluee Black (color C, Size 40) I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Waterproof High Rise Hiking Boots,Walking Hiking shoes,Breathable, Soft, Comfortable