The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Biacolum Mens Hiking shoes Quick Drying Barefoot Training Running shoesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Alibress Men's Women's Lightweight Breathable Athletic Sneakers Mesh for Walking Running Sport Gym shoesSam Edelman Womens Karlee Fashion Boot HUAN shoes Mens Casual shoes Low-Top Fashion shoes Breathable British Style Lace-up shoes Dress shoesTed Baker Mens Eeril Sneakergenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Lakai Men's MJ Action Sports, Black Suedeand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Men's Leather shoes Men's shoes Business shoes are Wearing Pointed Wedding shoes Non-Slip Soft Casual shoes (color A, Size 37)Punk Style New Bullock Carved Martin Boots Leather Boots Plus Velvet Large Size BootsWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

Men's Leather shoes formalized Pointed shoes Men's lace-up Casual Men shoes

I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Skechers Mens Milton Lace Ankle BootieSeaVees Womens Women's Sunset Strip Sneaker Paradise SneakerINMONARCH Mens Wine Wedding shoes Fashionable MJ015160Cotswold Womens Aggshill Mid Boot Blkfuc Size UK 3 EU 36 I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. BONGZUO Monk shoes, Business Dress Up Buckle Monk Gentleman Tidal shoes Leather England Wedding shoes, YMM2833-6), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Dickies Mens Spectre Black Industrial Boot), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Bella Vita Womens Lor- Slide Sandal Heeled Sandaland Men's Leather shoes PU Fall Winter Comfort Boots Walking shoes Slip Resistant Black Wedding Party & Evening,High-Top Boots,Ankle Boots ,Martin Style,Snow Boots (color A, Size 42)). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, London Fog Men's Rinx BootsAdidas ORIGINALS Men's Tubular Shadow Ck Fashion Sneakersduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Seychelles Womens Remembrance Ankle BootXUJW-Sandals, Men's Casual Thong Flip Flops shoes PU Leather Beach Slippers Non-Slip Sole Black Summer Sandals,Perfect for The Beach Or Any Outdoor Scene.Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? PANCY Leather Waterproof Men's Steel Toe Work Safey shoesMen's mesh Sports Tennis shoes Athletic Walking Tennis Sneaker Breathable Air Shock Absorption Running Tennis shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Jessica Simpson Womens Pixera2 PumpThe Fix Womens Lyla Poms Ankle Bootie.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Bernie Mev Women's Maile Fashion BootColumbia Mens High RockTM Boat shoes SELCNG Hiking shoes Unisex Walking shoes Waterproof Walking shoes Men's Walking shoes with Outdoor Sports Hiking shoes Non-Slip OutsoleBar III Womens Penny Fabric Closed Toe Ankle Fashion, Nimbus Grey, Size 11.0The costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Nike Jordan Men's Jordan Trunner LX Training shoesDSFGHE Men's Leather Walking shoes Summer Lace-up shoes Low Toe Round Flat shoes Rubber Non-Slip Breathable shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Puma Suede x Staple SneakersAriat Women's Unbridled Ace Western Boot There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeConverse Mens Chuck Taylor All Stars Tropical Print Hi Top Canvas TrainersSeaVees Mens Legend Sneaker Saltwash Sneaker.Driver Club USA Womens Womens Genuine Leather Grand 2 Loafer Driving Style LoaferWXQ Men's Running shoes Fashion Breathable Sneakers Mesh Soft Sole Casual Athletic Lightweight Walking shoes bluee 46 At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, MUMUWU Oxford shoes for Men Lace Up Style Breathable Hollow Out Upper Formal Business shoes (color Brown, Size 5.5 M US)Dykhmily Womens Leather Work shoes, Non-Slip Anti-Static Safety shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (PUMA Women’s Vikky Low-Top Sneakers).Men's Formal shoes Split Leather Spring & Fall Lace-up Block Heel Pointed Leather shoes Wedding Prom Office YANMen's Driving shoes Spring Fall Suede Loafers & Slip-Ons Fashion Business Casual Flat shoes Lazy shoes Occupation, Offic (color A, Size 40) However,Skechers Mens Equaliser Mind Game Slip On Trainers SneakersFrye Women's Billy Shootie-Wshovn Western Boot I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.FASHION BOOTS Autumn Men's shoes Sports shoes Running shoes Board shoes

GM GOLAIMAN Men's Snow Boots Winter Combat-Fur Lined Lace Up Zipper Cap Toe Boot for Work Motorcycle Hiking Military Tactical Mens Casual Leather Loafer Flats Slip On Driving shoes Business Casual Tassel Lazy shoes Loafers & Slip-Ons White Black Khaki (color C, Size 42)

New Balance Men's MW813V1 Hook and Loop Walking shoes