The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Nunn Bush Mens Hampton Chukka BootThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Mens Sandals, Men's Flat Sport shoes Casual Loafers Lace up Non-Slip Low Top Outsole Canvas Sneakers (color Black, Size 8.5MUS)Seychelles Womens Bits 'N Pieces Flat Sandal Kodiak Womens Low-Rider Chelsea Fashion BootFlossy Women's Osuna Fz Flatgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Dockers by Gerli Men’s 36ht001-204420 Low-Top Sneakersand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. WeiPoot Women's Frosted Solid Closed Toe Boots with Zippers and ThreadOutdoor Hiking shoes,Men Running shoes - Breathable Casual Trainers, Soft, Comfortable Walking Sneakers, Durable FootwearWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Clarks Men's Triflow Form SneakerAdidas Womens Edge Rc W Running shoesLozano Maroon Velvet Slip ons Tassels Casual shoes MaroonMen's shoes Suede Summer Comfort Loafers & Slip-Ons Mens Casual shoes Black bluee I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Phil Betty Mens Casual shoes Breathable Non-Slip Wear-Resistant Business Flat Loafers shoes), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Joma Soccer shoes Super REGATE Turf 906 Yellow Fluo Calcetto Scarpa), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Propet Women's Walker LE Sneaker White 6 2E 2E USand Kenneth Cole New York Womens Allyson Platform Lace Up Sneaker with Jute Wrap- Techni-Cole Sneaker). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Adidas Mens Nemeziz 18.1 TR SoccerLIJUN Men's Snow Boots Winter Sporty Casual shoes Keep Warm Walking Rubber Ankle shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Base London Mens Woburn Hi-Shine Lace Up Casual Leather shoes LeatherGM GOLAIMAN Men's Suede Oxfords Dress shoes Casual Lace-Up Wingtip Brogue Ankle Work shoesLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Dickies Super Safety Rigger Boot (Lined) (FA23350)Kenneth Cole New York Womens Babbot Sporty Low Wedge Espadrille with Ankle Strap Espadrille Wedge SandalAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Adidas Original ZX Flux Mens Sneakers shoesDuckmole Men's Premium Leather Fur Lined Lace-up Loafers Casual Business shoes Mordern Italian Style.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Room Of Fashion ROF Women's Lace Up Over The Knee OTK Military Combat Riding BootsCambridge Select Women's Open Toe Ankle Strap Crystal Rhinestone Chunky Platform High Heel Dress Sandal Men's Sneakers, Spring and Autumn Mens Casual shoes Male Increase Within shoes Korean Version of Comfortable Breathable Footwear (color Black, Size 40)Sport Sandals Sandals Breathable Non-Slip Slippers Casual Walking Camping Sandals Outdoor Travel Fishing Beach Slippers Summer Men's Roman shoes (color Black, Size 5.5UK 7.5US)The costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Men Women Water shoes Quick Dry Barefoot for Swim Diving Surf Aqua Sports Pool Beach Walking Yoga Green 5.5Men's Hiking shoes Winter Plus Warm High Men's shoes Large Size Trend Knight Men's Leather Boots Wild Tie Outdoor Climbing Men's shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Desi Hangover Womens Pure Leather Handmade shoes Elle Red, Free Express ShippingGoodtimeshow Sports Tactical Trekking Men Sneakers Light Shock Absorption Non-Slip shoes Military Boots Hiking There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeThe Original MuckBoots Adult Edgewater Hi BootSkechers Performance Men's Go Walk 3 Compete Lace-Up Walking shoes.Born - Womens - Julianne BlackClarks Bota Step - Navy Canvas (Textile) Mens Trainers At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Dunham Men's Tony-Dun Hiking BootNine West Womens Matteo Leather Dress Sandaltherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Sam Edelman Womens Hutton Knee High Boot).Vince Camuto Womens Richetta SandalKenneth Cole Men's Klay Boot in Brown However,Blowfish Women& 39;s Goya SandalAdidas Kids' Freak Mid MD Von Football Cleats I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Spring New Business shoes,Men's Leather Formal shoes,Pointed Toe shoes,Heightening shoes,Wedding Party Dress shoes,Black,41

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