The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Diesel Mens Happy Hours S-Tage SneakerThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Patricia Green Womens Pretty PoufPUMA Unisex Adults' Pacer Evo Low-Top Sneakers, bluee (True bluee White 02), 8 UK Men's Boots,Fall Winter Leather Casual Low-Top Boots Comfortable Running Boot Personality Tooling Boots Outdoor Military Boots Waterproof Ankle Boots Hiking shoes Desert Warfare XUEKAANAS Womens Edinburgh Knotted Open Toe Slide Chunky Heel Pumpgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, No.66 Town Men's Outdoor Running shoes Fashion Youth Sneaker Basketball shoes for Boysand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Nike - Classic Cortez NylonLozano Tan Leather Sneakers Casual shoes Tan BrownWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,MUMUWU Men's Fashion Ankle Work Boot Casual Autumn and Winter Classic Carved Patent Leather Brogue High Top Boot (color Black, Size 6.5 D(M) US)Skechers Womens Windom Winter BootManitu Home Herren-Hausschuh blue 240030-5Men's Snow Boots Martin Boots Fur Lined Winter Lightweight Non-Slip Warm Outdoor Booties Size:38-49 I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Men's mesh Sports Tennis shoes Athletic Walking Tennis Sneaker Breathable Air Shock Absorption Running Tennis shoes), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Taos Footwear Women's Retro Star Sneaker), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Per Pedes Men's Mystery Womanand Converse Unisex Low Top Chuck Taylor All Star II Canvas shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, ASICS Men's Cosmoracer Md Track shoesGM GOLAIMAN Men's Snow Boots Winter Combat-Fur Lined Lace Up Zipper Cap Toe Boot for Work Motorcycle Hiking Military Tacticalduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). MUMUWU Men's Fashion Ankle Work Boot Casual Outdoor Round Toe Winter Faux Fleece Inside High Top Boot Winter BootsJosef Seibel Cardiff - 36492946530Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Columbia Men's Tango Fisherman Sport SandalMerrell Womens Terran Ivy Wrap Sport SandalAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?VIC Women's Sneaker Walking shoesVictoria Women’'s Deportivo Ciclista Glitter Trainers Black.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Lacoste Men's Gazon Sport 216 1 Fashion SneakerMen's shoes Suede Fall & Winter High-Top Casual shoes Academy Deck shoes Fashion Sports shoes Cycling shoes Hiking shoes Red Black bluee,C,40 Abby QZYYU-1805 Mens Charming Breathable Formal Occasions Comfy Slip On Boat shoes Lightweight Slide Moccasins Bussiness Penny Loafers SimplePalladium Womens Pampa M65 Hi Lp Combat BootThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: SELCNG Hiking shoes Cross-Country Running shoes Non-Slip Shock Absorption Walking shoes Men's shoes Breathable Outdoor Travel shoes-bluee-44Nike Women's WMNS Lunar Command 2, Black White - Blackfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Frye Women's Carly Zip Chelsea BootSalomon 2018 Men's RX Slide 3.0 Sandal - Black Black Hawaiian Surf - L40145000 There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeMatisse Women's EL Paso Slouch BootModa Essentials Mens Revenant 4 Duck Toe Ankle Snow Boots.Insun Men's Leather Lace Up Ankle Work BootsTHE NORTH FACE Women's Litewave Ampere At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Pour La Victoire Womens Cerella PumpASICS Men's Gel Exalt 3 Running shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Mens Basketball High Top Ankle Trainers Boots Mesh Running Sports Sneakers).Qiucdzi Mens Sneakers Breathable Flyknit Running shoes Lightweight Athletic Walking Gym shoesAhico Mens Winter Boots for Men Snow Boot Hiking Fur Lined Ankle Booties Non-Slip Waterproof shoes Brown However,Rockport Zaden Chukka Mens Boots TanMen's Autumn & Winter Casual Fashion Sneakers Running Breathable Athletic Cushion Sports shoes I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Cambridge Select Women's Closed Round Toe Lace-up Chunky Block Heel Ankle Bootie

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