The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Snowman Lee Men's Leather Round Toe Mid-Top Casual Fashion Sneaker shoesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Palladium Pampa Hi Originale BootsSnowman Lee Men's Premium Leather Driving Loafers Summer Breathable Casual Slip On Boat shoes Diadora Unisex Adults' Titan Ii Gymnastics shoesVirblatt Comfortable Hemp Espadrilles Men with Ethnic Pattern Hemp Slippers - Bequemgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Metrocharm MET525-4 Men's Lace Up Perforated Wing Tip Formal Dress Casual Fashion Ankle Bootsand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. MUMUWU Fashion Oxfords for Men Lace Up Style Cowhide Leather Casual Round Toe Leisure Work shoes (color Brown, Size 9.5 M US)Martin Boots Men's Suede Leather Fashion Short Boots Men's Retro Leather Boots Wild High to Help Desert Tooling shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

Nike Zoom Rival D 9 Track & Field Men's shoes White bluee

I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Deer Stags Men's Wherever Navy Microsuede Slipper 15M (US)Adrienne Vittadini Womens goldie SneakerSteve Madden Men's Fanatic Lace-UpBostonian Men's Narrate Wing Oxfords I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Phil Betty Mens Booties Breathable Non-Slip Lace Up Warm Comfortable Casual shoes), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Duberess Women's Real Leather Casual Comfort Mary Jane Platform Wedges shoes), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Converse Chuck Taylor All Star Core Low Top Black Monochrome M5039 Mens 10and Feifei Men's shoes Winter Retro Leisure Leather shoes 4 colors (color 04, Size EU39 UK6 CN39)). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Nike Men's Tiempo Mystic V IC Black White Metallic gold Indoor Soccer shoes 7 Men USMen's shoes Winter Casual Keep Warm Plus Velvet Formal shoes Comfortable Fashion Driving shoes Work shoes,B,40during experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Nine West Womens Wnaubrey Heeled Sandalredhco 8 Forced Entry Desert Tan Side Zip BootLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? CITYCLASSIFIED City Classified Soda Coen-2 Pointy Toe Pump, Navy bluee, 10 B(M) USKids Casual Outdoor Basketball shoes Autumn and Winter Leather high Men's Outdoor Hiking shoes Hiking shoesAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?XHD- Classic shoes Men's Personality Driving Loafers Casual Genuine Leather Comfortable Soft Solid color Boat MoccasinsNike - Vapor 12 Academy IC.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Men's Business Leather shoes Spring Fall Formal Men shoes Pointed Lace-Up Wedding shoes Dress shoes,A,38Isotoner Men's Microsuede Hoodback Thinsulate Flat Men's shoes 2018 Autumn Winter Deck shoes High-Top shoes Lace Up Casual shoes Daily shoes Walking shoes Hiking shoes,A,43Adidas Mens Predator 18.3 FG Soccer shoes SoccerThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: English Laundry Mens Irvine Fashion SneakerMUMUWU Antislip Walking Loafer for Men Casual Oxfords Pure color Genuine Leather Handmade (color Yellow, Size 8.5 D(M) US)factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.BCBGeneration Womens Hilary Mule Pump MuleClarks Mens Tri Active Knit Textile Trainers There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeVelociraptor Men's 500 Sneakers Breathable Fashion Original Lightweight Running shoesLucky Womens Lahela Fashion Boot.Diesel Mens D-Velows D-Velows Low Patch SneakerCambridge Select Men's Outdoor Lace-up Soccer shoes Cleats At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Rieker Herren Slipper brown, 620209-2Men's Casual shoes Retro Martin Boots Trend Outdoor Tooling Boots Men's shoes 38-46therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Snowman Lee Men's Genuine Leather and Non-Slip Rubber Relaxed Fit Breathable Inner Slip-On).Bernie Mev Womens Claire Pumps shoesSIDEBIKE Cycling shoes MTB Man Racing Bicycle MTB shoes Mountain Bike Sneakers Professional self-Locking Breathable 001 However,Toto Men's Invisible Height Increasing Elevator shoes - Grey Leather Lace-up Lightweight Casual Trainer Sneakers - 2.8 Inches Taller - A018Mens Booties Breathable Non-Slip Pointed-Toe Wear-Resistant Casual shoes I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Walking Cradles ROS Hommerson Maybe Women's Slip-On, Pewter, Size 10.0

LIUXUEPING Summer New shoes Flat shoes Set of Lazy shoes Casual shoes Canvas shoes Pedal Men's shoes (color White, Size 43) XIANV Men Women Water shoes Mesh Quick Dry Barefoot Hiking Aqua Sports Pool Beach Walking Yoga

WeiPoot Women's Blend Materials Solid Closed-Toe Boots with Rubber Soles and Stiletto