The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. BZees Pisces Women's Slip On shoesThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,MUMUWU Men's Fashion Ankle Work Boot Casual Outdoor Round Toe Winter Faux Fleece Inside High Top Boot Winter BootsNature Breeze Harley 12 Womens Military Lace up Studded Combat Boot Bugatti Men Lace-Up shoes Grey 341730616900-1500Men's Basketball shoes 2018 Fall Comfort Athletic shoes High-Top Lace-Up Sneakergenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Reebok Mens Ridgerider 4.0 Leather Walking shoesand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Jambu Womens Navajo - Water Ready Flat SandalChaco Men's Updraft Bulloo SandalWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Feifei Men's shoes Winter Fashion Casual Retro Leather shoes 3 colors (color 03, Size EU40 UK7 CN41)Clarks Josh Twin Gore Men's Slip OnDrMartens Tower Steel Toe 6 Eye Work Boot Mens R16113001Men's Formal shoes Cowhide Fall Business Oxfords Proof Waterproof Footwear Large Size:5-10.5 I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Kenneth Cole New York Womens Babbot Sporty Low Wedge Espadrille with Ankle Strap Espadrille Wedge Sandal), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Frye Women's Ivy Deco Stud Low LACE Sneaker), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Clarks Men's Unbizley Plain Leather Lace-Up shoesand Lakai Footwear Owen Kids Navy Suedesize 1 Tennis shoes, Navy Suede). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Lucini Formal Men Black Leather Formal Chelsea Slip-On Boots Wedding OfficeBoots for Women, Round Head Large Size Flat Belt Buckle Fashion Boots, British Wind Belt Buckle Boots Snow Bootsduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). TSLA TF-T320-NVK_Men 12 D(M) Men's All-Terrain Trail Running shoes T320Chaco J106243 Men's 1 Web Sandal No LoopLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Skechers Women's Career-Quick Comfort Ballet FlatMUMUWU Men Oxford shoes Lace Up Style OX Leather Casual Classic Solid color Round Toe Formal shoes (color Light Brown, Size 7.5 M US)And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Men shoes, Spring Comfortable Walking Gym shoes, Men Loafers & Slip-Ons Lazy shoes Peas shoes, Casual Driving shoes Size 36-47,Black,47GFP Men's Leather shoes, Spring Fall Formal Business Leather shoes,Comfort Breathable Mens Casual shoes, Walking shoes,Loafers shoes.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Velociraptor Men's 500 Sneakers Breathable Fashion Original Lightweight Running shoesWomen's Hiking shoes, Outdoor High-top Leather Hiking shoes Non-Slip Wear-Resistant Couple Walking shoes Running shoes Male and Female Cross Country Climbing shoes Nike MercurialX Victory VI IC Indoor Soccer shoesAdidas Nemeziz Messi 17.3 FG Cleat Kid's Soccer WhiteThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Santimon Dress shoes for Men Alligator Crocodile Print Tassel Loafer Genuine Leather Slip OnpinkG Men's Leather Lace-Up Platform Creepers Goth Punk Oxfords shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Geox Mens Ravex 1 SneakerBates Mens Velocitor Lightweight Boot There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeOfficial Brand Giorgio Bexley Slip On shoes Mens Black Loafers Flats Formal FootwearMen's Leather shoes, Spring Fall Casual Driving shoes, Loafers & Slip-Ons, Single shoes Work shoes, Fashion Comfortable (color B, Size 45).OCHENTA Women's High Top Wedge Hidden Heel Suede Leather Fashion SneakerMen's Athletic shoes,Leather,Spring Fall,Comfort Low-Top Sneakers,Breathable Running shoes,Lace Up shoes,Lightweight Walking shoes,Non-Slip Travel,Fitness shoes (color A, Size 43) At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Z.L.F Men's Driving Penny Loafers Suede Genuine Leather Fashion Moccasins Slip-On Boat shoes Up to Size 12 MUS Oxford shoes (color Navy, Size 10.5 MUS)Men's shoes Men's Sneakers Casual shoes Europe and America Trend Running shoes Youth Men's One Foot Lazy shoes Comfortable Personality Breathable shoestherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (B.O.C. Born Womens - Madeleine).HUAN Mens Casual shoes 2018 New Spring Fall Leather Lace-up Flat Loafers Deck shoes Comfort Driving shoes Fashion Sneakers BlackKR Strikeforce M-030-070 Flyer Bowling shoes, Black, Size 7 However,Freewaters Mens Freeland Premium Suede Outdoor Casual Dress Boot W Arch Support & 3m Scotchgard Chukka BootAdidas Originals Women's ZX Flux W Lace-Up Fashion Sneaker I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Hush Puppies Men's Origin Oxford

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