The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Rockport Mens Dustyn Slipon LoaferThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,KIIU Comfortable Flip Flop Slippers for Men Casual Sandals Beach Outdoor shoes(44,Black)Santimon Mens Penny Loafers Driving Moccasins Slip On Classic Casual Boat Dress shoes Steve Madden Womens Laceupp Western BootPUMA Men's Evospeed 17.5 Tt Football Boots, orangegenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Men's shoes, Outdoor Hiking Sports Casual shoes Spring Fall New Trekking Lace-Up Running shoes,B,40and molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Nine West Womens Weeping Synthetic Loafer FlatK-Swiss Men's X Lite Cmf Ankle-High Synthetic Running shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Men's Casual Loafers & Slip-Ons Spring Fall Leather Lazy shoes Driving shoes Men Work shoes Flat shoes (color A, Size 41)BEFAiR Men's Lightweight Mesh shoes Comfort Casual Slip On Loafers Breathable Walking Water shoesCITYCLASSIFIED City Classified Women's Peep Toe Perforated Ankle Strap Espadrilles Wedge, British Tan, 9 M USSantimon Men Genuine Oxford Leather Lace up Slip on Boots Formal Dress shoes black I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Kids Casual Outdoor Basketball shoes Autumn and Winter Leather high Men's Outdoor Hiking shoes Hiking shoes), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Z.L.F shoes Modern Men's Business Oxford Casual Classic British Comfortable Leather Formal shoes Leather shoes), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, PUMA Men's Basket II Sneaker Greyand Men's shoes Fall & Winter Deck shoes High-Top Sneakers Lace Up Boots Hiking shoes Athletic shoes Casual Daily shoes,D,46). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Altra Women's Superior 2 Trail Running shoes, Pewter Atlantic, 6.5 M USLIUXUEPING Summer New shoes Flat shoes Set of Lazy shoes Casual shoes Canvas shoes Pedal Men's shoes (color White, Size 43)during experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Feifei Men's shoes Retro Fashion Leisure Leather shoes (color Black, Size EU39 UK6.5 CN40)Sport Sandals Sandals Summer Men's Roman shoes Breathable Non-Slip Sandals Casual Walking Camping Slippers Outdoor Fishing Beach Slippers (color Black, Size 5.5UK 7.5US)Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Eastland Men's Chester Hiking BootsIt's a big deal Mens shoes Casuals Cut Outs Slip On Hasp shoes Men Loafers Split LeatherAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Sanuk Men's Grifter Sidewalk Surfer Slip-OnSATUKI Adult Men's Antiskid Waterproof Rubber Sole Work shoes Rain Boots Black.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Adidas Men's ACE Tango 17.3 Indoor Soccer shoesNike - Mercurial Vaporx 12 Academy TF Fust by Nature - AH7384810 Haflinger Pantoffeln Flair Dackel 313021-84, steingrey Gr.43DSFGHE Men Boots Tactical Patrol Breathable Lightweight Wear Resistancewaterproof Combat BootsThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Kenneth Cole New York Womens Riley 85 Mm Heel Slingback Pump Pump2019 New Men's shoes Casual Comfort Flat Loafers Spring Summer Comfort Loafers & Slip-Ons Lazy Business shoes,A,41factors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Nike Men's Tiempo Mystic IV FG Soccer shoesReebok Women's Fusium Run 2.0 There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeSkechers Women's Work - Clog Slip-On Resistant Slip-On shoesDockers Men's Glacier Mocc-Toe Oxford.Emu Women's Jolie Ankle-High Sheepskin Flat shoesConverse Men's Chuck Taylor All Star II Ox Black White 151161C-001 At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Santimon Dress shoes for Men Tassel Loafer Genuine Leather Alligator Crocodile Print Venetian-Style Slip-OnEnglish Laundry Mens Nebo Oxfordtherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (TD S2039 Large Size Sandals Men Beach shoes Outdoor Sports shoes Leisure Sandals Breathable Sandals (color C, Size EU40 UK7 CN41)).Nine West Women's Russity Leather Ankle BootEcco Cruise II Outdoor shoes Purple However,Smoky Mens Denver Round Toe Brown BootsDiadora Mens Quinto 6 Tf Soccer shoes I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Kenneth Cole REACTION Mens Sound Driver B Driving Style Loafer

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