The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Qupid Women's Neo144 Leatherette Basic Slouchy Knee High Flat Boot,5.5 B(M) US,Mustard Velvet.Mustard VelvetThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Feifei Men's shoes Retro Fashion Leisure Leather shoes (color Black, Size EU39 UK6.5 CN40)Gentle Souls Womens Rory Cozy Sneaker Mule Mule Dockers Men's Thurman Chelsea BootNike Alpha Pro 2 3 4 TD Football Cleatsgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Enzo Romeo Wood03N Men's Perforated Lace up Cap Toe Oxford Dress shoesand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Delicious Women Eiffel Glossy Closed Toe Dress Platform Pump Professional Women Stiletto Heel,gold Glitter,8.5Suetar Men's Military Training Sport shoes Spring and Summer Breathable Non-Slip Running shoes MS68We integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

Onlymaker Sock Booties Pull Up Mid-Calf Ankle Boots for Women

I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Men's shoes Leather Spring Fall Driving shoes Comfort Sneakers Lace-up for Casual Lightweight Outdoor Athletic Black, Brown (color A, Size 38)Sport Sandals Sandals Outdoor Travel Lightweight Beach shoes Walking Camping Fishing Sandals Rubber Skid Increased Slippers Summer Men's Business shoes (color White, Size 6UK 8US)Ollio Womens shoes Braided Side Buckle Accent Multi color Flat Sandal M1966 (7.5 B(M) US, Brown)La Sportiva Men's Wildcat Trail Running shoes I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Naturalizer Womens Yolanda Slip-On Loafer), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. T-JULY Winter Warm Plush Women shoes Female Retro Comfort Fur Warm Snow Boots), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Base London Crown Mens shoes Blackand Goeao Women Casual Comfortable Suede Leather Driving Bow Moccasins Slip-on Loafers Grey). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Restoration Mens Wayne Leather Chukka Ankle Boot shoesMens Basketball shoes High-Top Outdoor Sneakers Running Trainers Sports Athletic shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Capps Men's LH811SM Antistatic Safety Grain Leather Chukka Boot with Steel Midsole US Size 10 BlackCotswold Grange Neoprene Mens Rubber Wellington BootsLocal biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Hugo Boss Men Solar_Slid_Logo2 Slip-ons shoesRiva Womens Cartier Slip on Sandal Fushia Size UK 8 EU 41And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Feifei Men's shoes Winter Warm Fashion Non-Slip Casual High-top shoes (color Brown, Size US11 EU43 UK9 CN44)MUMUWU Men's Driving Loafers Casual Four Seasons Set Foot Size Comfortable Wear-Resistant Boat Moccasins Semi (color Hollow Brown, Size 10 D(M) US).

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Insun Men's Cowhide Leather Lace Up SneakersWomen's Pikolinos, Alcudia W1L-8845 Sandals Hush Puppies Womens Olive Tstrap Buckle Strap Sandal bluee Size UK 3 EU 36Frye Womens Erica Stud Oxford OxfordThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Adidas Ace 16.3 FG Mens Football Boots Soccer CleatsXHD- Classic shoes Men's Fashion Moccasins PU Leather Flat Heel Slip on Driving Style Loaferfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Nike Men's Free RN CMTR 2018 Running shoesMen's shoes Winter Plus Velvet Keep Warm Hiking shoes High-Top Casual Tourism shoes Non Slip Waterproof Outdoor shoes,B,40 There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeSELCNG Hiking shoes Unisex Walking shoes Waterproof Walking shoes Men's Walking shoes with Outdoor Sports Hiking shoes Non-Slip outsole-grey-41INC International Concepts I35 Senaraa Bejeweled Cross Strap Sandals, Beige, 6 US.Men's Sneakers Snow Boots Mountaineer shoes Rubber Ski Snowboard Hiking Waterproof, Anti-Slip, High-Top Sneakers,Wadded,Martin Style,Tooling Boots Large Size (color B, Size 39)Clarks Amieson Limit Brogue Men's Leather Lace Up Oxfords At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, UIN Men's Riverside Knit Travel Casual shoes GreyVery Volatile Womens Moonstruck Slide Sandaltherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Sport Sandals Slippers Open Toe Slippers Men's Home Walking Beach shoes Summer Casual Fishing Sandals PU Rubber Non-Slip Sandals (color Black, Size UK6 US8)).2019 New Men's shoes Casual Comfort Flat Loafers Four Seasons Comfort Loafers & Slip-Ons Lazy shoes Black Brown,A,41Soviet Bux Vamp shoes Mens Footwear Trainers Sneakers However,Dig dog bone Men's Driving Loafers Strap Decor Slip-on Leisure Penny Moccasins Soft Rubber SolePleaser Men's Gravel 10S Lace-Up I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Fly London Womens DUKE941FLY Ankle Boot

ECCO Womens Incise Tailored Loafer Loafer Flat Troadlop Mens Sneakers Slip on Gym Workout shoes

Propét Mens Cross Walker Le Strap Sneaker