The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Adidas Gazelle Og Mens TrainersThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Nike Men's Air Jordan 1 Phat Basketball shoesDiadora - Utility Gemini II Low S1P Bogs Women's Snowday Low Waterproof Winter BootPUMA Womens Suede Platform Celebrate WN's Sneakergenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Mens shoes,Spring New Leather Loafers & Slip-Ons,Light Soles Comfort Driving shoes, Formal Business shoes Office & Career,Brown,38and molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. Dublin Unisex Summit Zip Paddock BootsRoman Sandals Men's Sports Trend Summer Casual New Leather Toe Cap Fashion Personality Large Size Beach shoes Men Handmade Top Layer Cow Leather (color Black, Size 39)We integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,MIDA Boys and Girls Winter Boots for Kids 34149 Leather and Fur Snow shoes, Abrasion Resistant, with Special Anti-Slip System OC-System, Warm and ComfortableMUMUWU Men's Driving Loafers Casual Four Seasons Set Foot Size Comfortable Wear-Resistant Boat Moccasins Semi (color Hollow Brown, Size 10 D(M) US)Steve Madden Womens Brenda SandalAbby QZYYU-7128 Mens Charming Loafers Leisure Moccasins Concise Design Breathable Classic Style Leather Slip On Comfy Slide Flat Fresh Lace Up I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Men Outdoor Hiking shoes Sandals,Summer Low Rise Trekking Quick-Drying Sandals,Non-Slip Wading shoes), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. TOTO - L6012 - 2.4 Inches Taller - Height Increasing Elevator shoes - bluee Leather Lightweight Casual shoes), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Adidas Men's CC Fresh Running shoesand Adidas Men's Transcend Basketball shoes). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, Nike Air Jordan 1 Flight 4 Premiere 23 Men's Basketball shoes Trainers, White, 11.5Unisex-Adult Hi-Top Sneaker Fashion Lightweight Men Sports shoes mesh Flying Woven Breathable Running shoesduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). Hugo Boss Men Solar_Slid_Logo2 Slip-ons shoesCotswold Mens Cirencester Chelsea Brogue Brown Size UK 8 EU 42Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? Base London Mens Keel Suede Leather Beige Size UK 6 EU 40Nike Mens Alpha Pro TD SB Low Football Cleats Washington Redskins Red Yellow (15 M US)And are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Men's Outdoor shoes Non Slip Wear-Resistant Hiking shoes High-Top Casual Sneakers Camping Running shoes,C,44SELCNG Hiking shoes Unisex Walking shoes Waterproof Walking shoes Men's Walking shoes with Outdoor Sports Hiking shoes Non-Slip outsole-Redwine-37.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).ECCO Women's Women's ST1 High Top Sneaker2018 New Men’s shoes, Spring Fall Clown shoes, Leather Casual shoes,Academy Running shoes,Hiking shoes,Non Slip Wear-Resistant Nike Mercurial Vortex II TF Mens Football Boots 651649 Soccer CleatsScarlet Footwear White Core Black Adidas Men's Barricade Club Tennis shoes WhiteThe costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: Isotoner Men's Suede Leather Moc FlatPolo Ralph Lauren Mens Millard Boat shoesfactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Nike Air Max Sequent 3 Mens 921694-101 Size 12.5IMaySon(TM Mens Fashionable Europe Martin Dog's Head High Top Sneaker There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeshoes - Comfortable Work shoes for Men - Waterproof Slip Resistant - Chef shoes - Medical shoes - StickyPROPhil Betty Mens Booties Plus Velvet Warm Non-Slip Wear-Resistant Lace-Up Snow Boots.Ohne Marke Herren-Pantolette black 220200-1SPLNWTFHCNWPCB Men's Dance shoes Men's Latin Dance shoes At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Flossy Vendaval Slip On shoes Mens Footwear Trainers SneakersAdidas Women's Questar Ride Runningtherefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Bergort Army Boots Men Low Top Hiking Tactical Military shoes).WTW Men's Slip on Flat Cork Sandals with Adjustable Strap Buckle Open Toe Slippers Suede SoleJ Slides Mens Darel Sneaker However,Lacoste Mens Esparre Deck 118 3 SneakerWheat Eastland Men's Lumber Up Chukka Boot I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.Metrocharm MC118 Men's Two Tone Perforated Wing Tip Lace Up Oxford Dress shoes

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